Isifo esingapheliyo se-pulmonary disease (COPD) igama elinikezwa izinhlobo zezimo zamaphaphu ezinzima ezithinta imigwaqo yomoya. Kwenza imigwaqo yomoya ibe mincane, ivinjwe futhi ivuvuke, okwenza kube nzima ukuphefumula. Enye yezimbangela ezinkulu zeCOPD ukubhema, noma ukuvezwa intuthu kagwayi, okungaba nomthelela omubi ekusebenzeni kwamaphaphu. 

Kungani ukubhema kuyimbangela ehamba phambili ye-COPD?

Ukubhema kuhilela ukuphefumula intuthu kagwayi, engena emaphashini futhi idale umonakalo. Amakhemikhali afinyelela kuma-70 aqukethwe intuthu kagwayi aziwa njengama-carcinogens (izinto ezikhuthaza umdlavuza) futhi angalimaza izindlela zakho zomoya kanye nezikhwama ezincane zomoya - ezibizwa ngokuthi i-alveoli - ezitholakala emaphashini akho.   

Ngaphezu kokubangela i-COPD, ukubhema kubangela ezinye izinkinga eziningi zezempilo, kuthinta impilo yakho yonke, amasosha akho omzimba, ikhwalithi yempilo yakho nokwandisa ubungozi bokushaywa unhlangothi, isifo senhliziyo, nezinhlobo eziningi zomdlavuza. Uma ubhema, cabanga ukukhuluma nodokotela wakho ngokuyeka ukubhema nezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa impilo yakho ejwayelekile.

Uma ubhema phakathi neminyaka yakho yobusha noma ubhekene nentuthu kagwayi ngesikhathi useyingane, ungahle uhlupheke ngokukhula kancane kwamaphaphu nokukhula. Lokhu kungakhuphula nobungozi be-COPD lapho usumdala. 

Bangaki abantu ababhemayo abathola i-COPD?

E-US, izibalo zikhombisa ukuthi ukubhema kubangela i-79% yawo wonke amacala e-COPD. Kuyicala elifanayo e-UK, lapho cishe ikota yokufa kwabantu ababhemayo kubangelwa yi-COPD. 

I-COPD yisimo sesikhathi eside esithinta cishe abantu abayizigidi ezingama-251 emhlabeni jikelele. Izibalo zize ziphakamise ukuthi ngo-2030, i-COPD ingaba yimbangela yesithathu yokufa emhlabeni. 

Ngabe bonke ababhemayo banayo i-COPD? 

Akubona bonke ababhemayo - ngisho nalabo ababhema kakhulu - abane-COPD. Eqinisweni, ucwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi cishe ingxenye eyodwa kwezintathu yamacala ayenzeka kubantu abangakaze babheme. Lokho kungenxa yokuthi kunezinye izinto ezingabandakanyeka ekwakhiweni kweCOPD. 

Ezinye izimbangela zeCOPD

COPD kukhula njengomphumela wokulimala kwesikhathi eside emaphashini okudala ukuthi anciphise, avuvuke futhi aphazamiseke. Ngaphandle kokubhema, ezinye izimbangela zibandakanya: 

  • Umlando womndeni wesifo esingelapheki samaphaphu 
  • Ukuvezwa ukungcoliswa komoya, uthuli, intuthu, noma amakhemikhali
  • Ukutheleleka njalo kwesifuba ebuntwaneni okushiya amaphaphu enesibazi 
  • Ubudala - i-COPD kungenzeka ikhule ngemuva kweminyaka engama-35.

Isimo esingajwayelekile sezakhi zofuzo esibizwa nge-alpha-1-antitrypsin ukuntuleka sithinta umuntu oyedwa kwabangu-100 futhi sibenze bathambekele kakhulu kuCOPD besebancane, ikakhulukazi uma bebhema. I-Alpha-1 antitrypsin yinto evame ukuvikela amaphaphu futhi ngaphandle kwayo iwashiya esengozini enkulu yokulimala. 

Ucwaningo lwakamuva luphakamisa nokuthi ukuba nemigwaqo yomoya emincane ehlobene nosayizi wamaphaphu kungashiya abantu behlelwe amandla okuphefumula aphansi kanye nengozi eyengeziwe yeCOPD. 

Kwenzekani uma ubhema nge-COPD?

Uma utholwe une-COPD, udokotela womndeni wakho uzokuncoma ukuthi uyeke ukubhema. Lokhu kukunika ithuba elihle kakhulu lokwelapha nokuphatha i-COPD yakho izimpawu. Ucwaningo oluthile lwathola ukuthi ukuyeka ukubhema kwehlisa kakhulu ingozi yokulaliswa esibhedlela nokufa kweziguli ze-COPD nalabo ababebhema kudala kunemiphumela engcono kakhulu kunaleyo eqhubeka nokubhema ngemuva kokuba utholwe une-COPD

Uma ungakwazi ukuyeka umkhuba wakho kagwayi noma ungafuni ukuyeka ukubhema, ungathola ukuthi ukubhema kukhulisa izimpawu zakho zeCOPD futhi kubangele ukuqhuma okukhulu. Lokhu kungakhuphula ubungozi bokungeniswa esibhedlela ukuze uthole ukwelashwa okwengeziwe, kuthinte izinga lempilo yakho, futhi kwehlise isikhathi sakho sokuphila.

Ungahlala isikhathi esingakanani nge-COPD futhi usabhema?

Kunzima ukubikezela kahle ukuthi ungaphila isikhathi esingakanani ne-COPD futhi usabhema. Kuya ngezici eziningi, kufaka phakathi ukuthi i-COPD yakho ikusiphi isigaba, noma yiziphi ezinye izindaba zezempilo onazo, nokuthi ubhema kangakanani. 

Ucwaningo oluningi lukhombisile ukwanda okuqondile engcupheni yokufa kwabantu abane-COPD ababhemayo, uma kuqhathaniswa nalabo abangabhemi. Ucwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi labo abane-COPD yesigaba esisodwa noma ezimbili (emnene futhi elinganiselayo) ababhemayo balahlekelwa yiminyaka embalwa yobudala bokuphila eminyakeni engama-65. Kulabo abane izigaba ezintathu noma ezine (ezinzima futhi ezinzima kakhulu) i-COPD, balahlekelwa yiminyaka eyisithupha kuya kweziyisishiyagalolunye yeminyaka yokuphila ngenxa yokubhema. Lokhu kungezelela eminyakeni emine yempilo elahlekelwe yinoma ngubani obhemayo. 

Uma unemibuzo mayelana nokuthi umkhuba wakho wokubhema we-COPD uzokuthinta kanjani isikhathi sakho sokuphila, khuluma nodokotela wakho. 

Ungayivimbela kanjani i-COPD

Enye yezindlela ezingcono kakhulu zokuvimbela i-COPD ukungabhemi noma ukuvezwa intuthu kagwayi, ngoba ingadala umonakalo omkhulu ezindleleni zakho zomoya nasemaphashini. 

Kepha njengoba i-COPD kwesinye isikhathi ingabangelwa ezinye izinto, ezinjengofuzo kanye nezifo zamaphaphu ezingane, akulula ngaso sonke isikhathi ukuvimbela wonke amacala. 

Noma ngabe yiziphi izimo, ukuxilongwa kusenesikhathi kanye nokwelashwa okufanele kwezidingo zakho kungavimbela omunye umonakalo odaleka emaphashini akho.

Ungayiphatha kanjani i-COPD

Ngokudabukisayo, alikho ikhambi le-COPD njengoba umonakalo wamaphaphu osuvele wenzekile awunakubuyiselwa emuva. Noma kunjalo, lesi sifo singaphathwa futhi waphathwa ukusiza ukuvimbela okunye ukulimala nokwenza ngcono izimpawu zakho kanye nekhwalithi yempilo. 

Imishanguzo oyodinga izoncika esigabeni sakho se-COPD nokuthi iCOPD ikuthinta kanjani. 

 

SOURCES

I-American Lung Association - Funda Nge-COPD.

ASH - Ukubhema nezifo zokuphefumula

I-BMJ Best Practice - Izifo Eziphuthumayo Zokuvimbela Izifo (COPD)

I-British Lung Foundation - Izibalo ze-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

IBritish Thoracic Society - COPD

Chen CZ, Shih CY, Hsiue TR, Tsai SH, Liao XM, Yu CH, Yang SC, Wang JD. Isikhathi sokuphila (i-LE) nokulahlekelwa yi-LE kweziguli ezinesifo esingapheli sokuphazamiseka kwamaphaphu. Ukuphefumula Med. 2020 Okthoba; 172: 106132. i-doi: 10.1016 / j.rmed.2020.106132. I-Epub 2020 Aug 29. PMID: 32905891.

HHS - Imiphumela yezempilo yokubhema, Ishidi lamaqiniso le-Surgeon General. 

UJosephs L, uCulliford D, uJohnson M, et al. Imiphumela ethuthukisiwe kulabo ababhemayo be-COPD: isifundo seqembu lase-UK lokunakekelwa okuyisisekelo. Ijenali Yokuphefumula YaseYurophu Meyi 2017, 49 (5) 1602114; I-DOI: 10.1183 / 13993003.02114-2016

ULamprecht B, uMcBurnie MA, uVollmer WM, et al. I-COPD kubantu abangakaze babheme: imiphumela evela kumthwalo osuselwa kubantu wokucwaninga ngezifo zamaphaphu. Isifuba. 2011;139(4):752-763. doi:10.1378/chest.10-1253

NHS - Isifo samaphaphu esingapheliyo - izimbangela

NICE - Isifo esingapheliyo sokuvimbela kwamaphaphu kubantu abadala

UQaseem A, Wilt TJ, Weinberger SE, Hanania NA, et al. I-American College of Physicians; I-American College of Chest Physicians; I-American Thoracic Society; I-European Respiratory Society. Ukuxilongwa nokuphathwa kwesifo esingapheliyo sokuphazamiseka kwamaphaphu: ukuvuselelwa komhlahlandlela wokusebenza ovela e-American College of Physicians, American College of Chest Physicians, American Thoracic Society, nase-European Respiratory Society. U-Ann Intern Med.

UShavelle RM, uPaculdo DR, uKush SJ, uMannino DM, uDrauss DJ. Isikhathi sokuphila neminyaka yokuphila elahlekile kwisifo esingapheliyo se-pulmonary disease: okutholwe ku-NHANES III Study-up Study. I-Int J Chron Ukuvimbela iPulmon Dis. 2009;4:137-148. doi:10.2147/copd.s5237

USmith BM, uKirby M, uHoffman EA, et al. Inhlangano ye-Dysanapsis enezifo ezingapheli zokuvimbela izifo zamaphaphu phakathi kwabantu abadala. I-JAMA. 2020;323(22):2268–2280. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6918 

I-WHO - Izifo zokuphefumula ezingapheli - izimbangela ze-COPD