I-COPD vs asthma: uyini umehluko?

I-asthma ne-COPD zombili yizimo zesikhathi eside ezithinta imigwaqo yomoya namaphaphu, okwenza kube nzima ukuphefumula. Ukuhlukanisa phakathi kwalokhu okubili kungaba nzima futhi abanye abantu banezimpawu nezimpawu eziyizimpawu zokugula zombili. Kodwa-ke, kunembile ukuxilongwa kubalulekile ekuhlinzekeni ukwelashwa nokuphathwa okufanele kakhulu.

Siyini isifuba somoya?

Asthma kuthinta cishe abantu abayizigidi ezingama-358 emhlabeni jikelele. E-USA, cishe umuntu oyedwa kwabangu-12 otholakala enalesi sifo.

Nge-asthma, ulwelwesi lwangaphakathi lwe-airways yakho lubucayi, luyavuvukala futhi luvuvuke futhi lukhiqize amafinyila amaningi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, imisipha ebushelelezi ezungeze imizila yomoya iyaqina. Kuholela ekutheni imigwaqo yomoya ibe mincane - inqubo ebizwa nge-bronchoconstriction - okwenza kube nzima ukuphefumula uphume.

Yini i-COPD?

COPD ichaza iqembu lezimo zamaphaphu - kufaka phakathi i-bronchitis ne-emphysema - elenza ukuthi izindlela zethu zomoya zinciphise, okwenza kube nzima ukuphefumula.

Emhlabeni jikelele, cishe abantu abayizigidi ezingama-384 bane-COPD, yize abaningi behlala befihliwe futhi bengatholakali. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi i-COPD ikhula kancane eminyakeni eminingi, okusho kwabaningi ukuthi ababoni zimpawu zize zifinyelele eminyakeni engama-50.

Umehluko omkhulu phakathi kwesifuba somoya neCOPD

Ukuncipha kwe-Airway kuyisici sakho kokubili i-COPD ne-asthma. Kuzo zombili lezi zimo, izimpawu zingakhuphuka futhi zibe zimbi ngokuzumayo - lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi kukhuphuka. Kodwa-ke, izinqubo ezithintekayo zihlukile ngokulandelayo.

Izimbangela nezimbangela

In COPD umonakalo ubangelwa ukuphefumula izinto eziyingozi, ezicasulayo emoyeni, imvamisa isikhathi eside.

Okucasula kakhulu intuthu kagwayi - kuze kube yizingxenye ezintathu kwezine zabantu ababhema i-COPD noma ababejwayele ukubhema. Ezinye izimbangela zeCOPD kufaka phakathi ukungcoliswa komoya, uthuli lwasemsebenzini, namakhemikhali.

Ama-flare-ups avame ukubangelwa ukutheleleka okuphefumula, ikakhulukazi ebusika.

Asthma iyimpendulo evuthayo, nexabanayo. Asazi imbangela ngqo kepha kungenzeka ukuthi iyinhlanganisela yezimo zemvelo, zofuzo, nezomsebenzi.

Izimbangela zokuqubuka ziyahlukahluka kuye ngomuntu futhi zingafaka ukuhleka, ukuvivinya umzimba, ukutheleleka ngokuphefumula, ukungezwani komzimba (isib. Impova noma isikhunta), nesimo sezulu.

Izimpawu

Izimpawu zokuphefumula ezingapheli ezivame ukuba nesifuba somoya kanye ne-COPD zibandakanya ukuphefumula, ukukhwehlela, ukuqina kwesifuba, kanye ne-wheeze. Noma kunjalo, iphethini lezimpawu liyahlukahluka.

In COPD, ukuphefumula kukhona izinsuku eziningi futhi kwenza umsebenzi womzimba ube nzima. Kungenzeka kuhlotshaniswe nokukhwehlela kanye ne-phlegm. Imvamisa, Izimpawu ze-COPD kuba kubi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi.

Asthma izimpawu ziyahlukahluka ngokuhamba kwesikhathi nangamandla. Kungaba nezikhathi ezide ezingenazimpawu.

Izimpawu zithuthuka ngokuzenzekelayo noma ngokuphathwa kwe-bronchodilator / corticosteroid.

Ubudala

COPD akuvamile kubantu abangaphansi kweminyaka engama-40. Asthma kuvamile ebuntwaneni kepha kungaqala noma nini. Ezinye izingane ezine-asthma zithola ukuthi izimpawu zazo ziyathuthuka njengoba zikhula.

Ukuhlolwa komsebenzi we-Lung (spirometry)

Isivivinyo somsebenzi wamaphaphu isivivinyo esilula sokuphefumula esikala ukuthi amaphaphu akho asebenza kahle kanjani. Uzocelwa ukuthi ushaye ngamandla emshinini obizwa nge-spirometer olinganisa inani eliphelele lomoya ongaphefumula kulo kanye, nokuthi ungashesha kangakanani ukuthulula amaphaphu akho omoya. Abantu abanamaphaphu aphilile bangakhipha okungenani ama-70% omoya emaphashini abo ngomzuzwana wokuqala we-exhale eqinile - lesi silinganiso sibizwa ngokuthi ivolumu yokuphoqelela yokuphefumula ngomzuzwana owodwa (FEV1). Isilinganiso esincishisiwe se-FEV1 siqinisekisa ukuthi unenkinga yomoya - ukwehla kwesikolo sakho, kukhuphuka izinga lokuvinjelwa.

Abantu abane COPD babe nokuvinjelwa okuqhubekayo komoya. Akuvame ukubuyiselwa emuva ngokwelashwa. Umsebenzi wamaphaphu uvame ukwehla ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Abantu abane ufuba imvamisa iba nezithiyo eziguquguqukayo zezindiza. Kungahluka kuye ngokuthi isifuba somoya silawulwa kahle kanjani.

Nge-asthma elawulwa kahle, umsebenzi wamaphaphu ungagcinwa.

Ukwelashwa

Izeluleko ezijwayelekile zokuphila zibandakanya ukuyeka ukubhema, ukuhlala uphilile, ukudla kahle, nokuzivocavoca umzimba okufanele.

Eziningi imithi ye-asthma nemithi ye-COPD iyafana, njengama-bronchodilators nama-anti-inflammatories athunyelwa kusetshenziswa i-inhaler device kanye / noma ukuthatha i-tablet. Kodwa-ke, lezi zimo zombili zinezinhlelo zokwelashwa ezihluke kakhulu.

Lapho uthola ukuthi une COPD, ukwelashwa kwezidakamizwa zomugqa wokuqala kuvame ukuba i-bronchodilator inhaler. Udokotela wakho angangeza ku-corticosteroid ephefumulelwe kamuva uma lokho kungenele. Nge ufuba ukuxilongwa, uzonikezwa i-corticosteroid ehogelwayo ngokushesha. Lokhu kubalulekile ukunciphisa amathuba akho okuba ne-flare-up enamandla, esongela impilo.

Ngingaba nakho kokubili i-asthma ne-COPD?

Isifuba somoya esihlanganisiwe kanye ne-COPD - kwesinye isikhathi esibizwa ngokuthi 'ukuhlangana kwesifuba somoya-i-COPD' - akusona isimo esihlukile. Kodwa-ke, kungenzeka ukuthi umuntu abe ne-asthma ne-COPD ngasikhathi sinye. Akucaci ukuthi lokhu kwenzeka kangaki futhi izifundo ezihlukile zibike ukuthi noma yikuphi phakathi kwabantu abayishumi nanye nengxenye yabantu abane-asthma noma i-COPD bangaba nemibandela yomibili. Amanani ayahlukahluka ngokuya ngokuthi uneminyaka emingaki, ubulili bakho, nokuthi abacwaningi balusetha kanjani ucwaningo lwabo.

Noma i-COPD ingavamile kubantu abaneminyaka engaphansi kwengu-40, izimpawu ezihlangene zesifuba somoya kanye ne-COPD zingavela ebuntwaneni noma ebudaleni.
Kudingeka izifundo eziningi kubantu abane-asthma ne-COPD. Kodwa-ke, siyazi ukuthi abantu abathola inhlanganisela yohlobo lwe-asthma nohlobo lwe-COPD bavame ukuzwa izimpawu ezinzima kanye nokuqhuma. Bavame nokudinga ukwesekwa kokunakekelwa kwezempilo okwengeziwe futhi umsebenzi wabo wamaphaphu ukhula ngokushesha kakhulu kunabantu abane-asthma noma i-COPD bodwa.

Ngizophathwa kanjani uma ngine-asthma ne-COPD?

Esikhathini sokuqala, udokotela wakho uzokwelapha i-asthma yakho. Uzonikezwa i-corticosteroid emuncu ukuze unciphise amathuba okuba ne-asthma flare-up enamandla noma esongela ukuphila, futhi mhlawumbe bazokwengeza ku-bronchodilator ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Ngokuya ngokuthi zincane kangakanani noma zimbi kangakanani izimpawu zohlobo lwe-COPD, ungadinga ukuphathwa kwezidakamizwa ze-COPD nokungezona izidakamizwa.

Udokotela wakho uzobuyekeza izimpawu zakho, ukwelashwa, nokuthi unempilo kangakanani ezinyangeni ezimbili noma ezintathu zokwelashwa. Ungadinga ukubona uchwepheshe wasesibhedlela uma kusenokungaqiniseki ngokuxilongwa kwakho noma uma izimpawu zakho zingakathuthuki ngokwanele.

Ngabe i-asthma ingaholela ku-COPD ngokuhamba kwesikhathi?

Akuwona wonke umuntu one-asthma oqhubeka nokuthuthukisa i-COPD. Kodwa-ke, ukuba nesifuba somoya njengengane noma umuntu omdala omncane kungathinta ukuthi amaphaphu akho akhula kanjani, futhi lokho kungakhuphula amathuba akho okuba ne-COPD lapho usumdala. Ucwaningo oluthile lwakamuva lubike ukuthi ngaphezu kwengane eyodwa kwezingu-10 ezine-asthma ephikelelayo (okusho ukuthi babenezimpawu nsuku zonke) zaqhubeka zaba ne-COPD njengomuntu osemncane osemusha.

Lokhu kusho ukuthi uma une-asthma, kubaluleke kakhulu ukuthi ungabhemi. Ukuyeka kuzosiza ukwehlisa amathuba akho okuthuthukisa i-COPD nasempilweni elandelayo.
Funda kabanzi mayelana:

Imithombo

I-American Lung Association 2020.

I-BLF 2020. Isifuba somoya ezinganeni.

IGINA 2017.

IGINA 2021.

IGOLIDE 2021.

IGINA 2020. Isithasiselo Esiku-inthanethi.

IHalpin DMG. 2020. Siyini isifo se-asthma chronic obstructive pulmonary disease esidlulayo? I-Clin Chest Med 41 (2020) 395-403.

IMedline 2021.

UMUHLE 2018 (kuvuselelwe i-2019).

I-NHS 2019.