Yini i-COPD?

I-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) yigama lezokwelapha elisetshenziselwa ukuchaza izinhlobo zezimo zamaphaphu ezibucayi ezenza ukuthi imigwaqo yomoya inciphe, ibe yisithiyo futhi ivuvuke, okwenza ukuthi ukuphefumula kube nzima. 

Lapho leli gama lihlukanisiwe ungabona ukuthi incazelo iyithola kanjani incazelo yayo:

Okungapheliyo Kusho ukuthi yisimo sesikhathi eside futhi esiqhubekayo esingasoze saphela

Ukuvimbela kubhekisa eqinisweni lokuthi imigwaqo yomoya emaphashini akho iye yancipha futhi yaphazamiseka

I-pulmonary kusho ukuthi yisimo esithinta amaphaphu akho

Izifo kukhombisa iqiniso lokuthi yisimo sezokwelapha esaziwayo. 

I-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease yisimo esivamile. Eqinisweni, ngokusho kweWorld Health Organisation (WHO), kunezigameko ezingaba yizigidi ezingama-251 zeCOPD emhlabeni jikelele. Amanani akhombisa ukuthi ngo-2030, i-COPD ingaba yimbangela yesithathu yokufa emhlabeni. 

Uma une-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, kancane kancane kuba nzima ukuphefumula. Uma ishiywe ingalashwa, isimo siba sibi kakhulu futhi nengozi yakho yokwamukelwa esibhedlela iyanda. Kungasongela impilo, futhi. Yize umonakalo emaphashini akho kungenakubuyiselwa emuva, ukwelashwa, ukwelashwa nokulungiswa kwendlela yokuphila kungakusiza ufunde ukuyilawula kahle. 

Uthola kanjani i-COPD?

Uma uhlushwa yinye noma eziningi zeqembu lezifo zamaphaphu, kungaholela Esifo Esingapheli Sokuvimbela Amaphaphu. Izimo ezimbili ezivame kakhulu ezihlotshaniswa ne-COPD yi-bronchitis engapheli, eshisa imigwaqo yomoya, ne-emphysema, elimaza izikhwama zomoya. 

  • I-bronchitis engapheli kubangela ukucasuka nokuvuvukala kumashubhu we-bronchial - amashubhu anesibopho sokuthwala umoya uye nawo nasemaphashini akho. Amashubhu ayavuvukala futhi akhiqiza ukwakheka kwe-phlegm noma i-mucus eceleni kolwelwesi. Izakhiwo ezincane ezinjengezinwele ezikumabhubhu abizwa ngokuthi i-cilia ngokuvamile zisiza ukukhipha amafinyila ngaphandle kwomoya, kepha ukucasuka okuvela ku-bronchitis okungamahlalakhona kuyawavimba. Ukwakheka kwamafinyila kubangela ukuthi ukuvuleka kweshubhu kunciphe futhi kwenze kube nzima ukungena nokuphuma umoya emaphashini.  

 

  • I-Emphysema kubangela ukuthi izindonga zamasaka amancane omoya - okuthiwa i-alveoli - zidilike, okwenza kube nzima ukuphefumula. Amasaka omoya atholakala engxenyeni engezansi yamaphaphu akho, ekugcineni kwamashubhu e-bronchial. Imvamisa badlala indima enkulu ekudluliseleni umoya-mpilo egazini lakho nasekuhluzeni i-carbon dioxide. 

Uma une-bronchitis engapheli, i-emphysema noma zombili lezi zimo, ungatshelwa ukuthi une-COPD. Njengoba kunezingxenye eziningi zemigwaqo yomoya ethintwa yizimo ezimbili zamaphaphu, kusuka kumashubhu we-bronchial kuya kumasaka omoya, akumangalisi ukuthi ukulimala kwamaphaphu kungenza kube nzima kakhulu ukuphefumula. 

Yini imbangela enkulu?

Isifo Esingapheli Sokukhubazeka Kwamaphaphu sikhula ngenxa yomonakalo wesikhathi eside emaphashini odala ukuthi avuvuke, aphazamiseke futhi anciphe. Ezinye zezimbangela ezinkulu ze-COPD zifaka:

  • Ukubhema noma umlando wokubhema
  • Ukuvezwa ukungcoliswa komoya, intuthu kagwayi, uthuli, intuthu noma amakhemikhali emsebenzini
  • Ubudala - I-COPD ijwayele ukukhula ngemuva kweminyaka engama-35
  • Umlando womndeni wesifo esingelapheki samaphaphu
  • Ukutheleleka njalo kwesifuba sezingane okungalimaza amaphaphu.

I-COPD nayo ingadalwa yisimo esingavamile sofuzo esibizwa ngokuthi yi-alpha-1-antitrypsin defence, esenza ukuthi abantu bathambekele ku-COPD besebancane. 

Ngokuphikisana nemibono ethile, kunezici eziningi ezibandakanyeka ku-COPD kunokumane uveze intuthu. Akubona bonke ababhemayo, ngisho nababhemayo abasindayo, abahlakulela i-COPD, futhi cishe ingxenye eyodwa kwezintathu yamacala ayenzeka kubantu abangakaze babheme. Ucwaningo lwamuva lubonisa ukuthi ukuba nemigwaqo emincane yomoya ehlobene nosayizi wamaphaphu kungabeka abantu ezingeni eliphansi lokuphefumula kanye nengozi eyandayo yeCOPD. 

Yiziphi izimpawu ze-COPD?

Izimpawu zihlanganisa:

  • Ukuphefumula kalula lapho usebenza, njengalapho usebenza noma wenza umsebenzi wasendlini 
  • Ukukhwehlela okuqhubekayo kwesifuba nge-phlegm
  • Ukutheleleka njalo kwesifuba
  • Ukuqhaqhazela, ikakhulukazi lapho kubanda

Izimpawu zingavela ngaso sonke isikhathi, noma zingase zibe zimbi kakhulu ngezikhathi ezithile, njengokuthi uma unesifo noma uphefumula intuthu kagwayi noma intuthu. 

Kufanele umbone nini udokotela wakho?

Uma uhlangabezana nezimpawu eziqhubekayo ze-COPD, ikakhulukazi uma uzizwa uphefumula kancane ngemuva kokusebenza, ungaphezu kweminyaka engama-35 futhi wake wabhema, kufanele ubone udokotela wakho. 

Akuyona into engavamile ukungazi ukuthi une-COPD. Abanye abantu bacabanga ukuthi izimpawu zokuqala - njengokuphefumula okuncane - kungenxa yobudala, ukungabi sesimweni noma isifuba somoya. Ngenxa yalokhu, abantu abaningi bazama ukunciphisa imisebenzi yabo kunokufuna iseluleko sezokwelapha. Kodwa njengoba i-COPD ingase ibe yimbi kakhulu, kubalulekile ukuthola izimpawu ezingalindelekile zihlolwe ngokushesha kunokuba kamuva. 

Udokotela wakho uzokubuza mayelana nezimpawu obukade uhlangabezana nazo futhi angakuhlelela ukuthi ube nokuhlolwa kokuphefumula okulula, okubizwa nge-spirometry. Lokhu kuhlolwa kungasiza ukukhipha ezinye izimo zamaphaphu, njenge-asthma (isifo samaphaphu esingapheli esivutha futhi sinciphise imigwaqo yomoya). I-Spirometry ilinganisa amandla akho wamaphaphu nokuthi ungaphefumula ngokushesha kangakanani. Ungase futhi ube ne-X-ray yesifuba, i-CT scan noma ukuhlolwa kwegazi ukukhipha ezinye izimo futhi hlonza i-COPD.  

Yiziphi izindlela zokwelapha?

Yize lungekho ikhambi eliqondile le-COPD, lingalawulwa futhi liphathwe ukunqanda ukulimala okuqhubekayo emaphashini akho futhi kuthuthukise izimpawu zakho. 

Udokotela wakho angakuyala:

  • Imithi ehogelwayo ebizwa ngama-bronchodilators, ethambisa imisipha ezungeze umoya
  • Ama-steroid anikezwa nge-inhaler ukunciphisa ukuvuvukala ezindleleni zakho zomoya
  • Ukuvuselelwa kwamaphaphu, uhlelo olunqunyiwe lokuzivocavoca nge-physiotherapist ukukusiza ufunde ukuphefumula kalula
  • Ezimweni ezimbi kakhulu futhi uma unamazinga aphansi oksijini wegazi, ukwelashwa komoya-mpilo ngeyunithi yasekhaya noma ithangi elincane eliphathekayo 
  • Uma ezinye izindlela zokwelapha zingasebenzi futhi i-COPD yakho inzima kakhulu, unganikezwa ukuhlinzwa ukuze ususe izingcezu ezilimele zamaphaphu akho noma uthuthukise ukuhamba komoya.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, kunezinyathelo ezisebenzayo ongazithatha ukulungisa imikhuba yakho yokuphila nokuzilawula ngokwakho izimpawu zakho. Lokhu kufaka phakathi:

  • Ukuvivinya umzimba njalo ukuthuthukisa ukuphefumula kwakho
  • Ukugcina isisindo esinempilo nokudla ukudla okunempilo, okunempilo
  • Ukuzijwayeza ukuzivocavoca ukuphefumula ukuze wandise umthamo wamaphaphu akho
  • Ukuthatha imithi oyinikezwe njalo
  • Ukugwema izinto ezingadala izinto ezifana nentuthu yethrafikhi, intuthu kagwayi noma uthuli
  • Ukuyeka ukubhema
  • Usebenzisa indwangu emanzi ukumanzisa uthuli ikhaya lakho futhi ususe izinhlayiya zothuli. 

I-COPD nayo ingakubeka engcupheni ephezulu yokugula kakhulu nge-coronavirus (COVID-19). Kubalulekile ukulandela ukuholwa nguhulumeni, ugweme izindawo eziminyene, gqoka isembozo sobuso, gcina ibanga lakho futhi ugeze izandla kaningi ukunciphisa ubungozi bokubamba i-coronavirus. Ukugonyelwa umkhuhlane minyaka yonke kungasiza futhi ekunciphiseni ubungozi bokubanjwa umkhuhlane. Thola okuningi nge-COPD ne COVID. 

Ngabe aphathwa kanjani ama-COPD flare-ups?

Ama-flare-ups we-COPD noma ukukhushulwa kwe-COPD yizikhathi lapho izimpawu ziba zimbi kakhulu futhi ziba nzima kakhulu. Ukwanda kwe-COPD kungenzeka ngenxa yokuchayeka ezintweni ezinjengokungcola, intuthu kagwayi noma ukutheleleka. 

Ama-flare-ups e-COPD aphathwa ngohlelo lokuqhamuka - uhlelo lokwelashwa olwenziwe udokotela wakho. Ngokuya ngezimpawu zakho nezidingo zakho zokwelashwa, uhlelo lwakho lwe-flare-up lungabandakanya ukuthatha ama-antibiotics noma ama-steroids ukunciphisa izimpawu zakho. Ngokuqhuma okukhulu, kungadingeka ukwelashwa esibhedlela. 

Yande kangakanani i-COPD?

I-COPD idlangile emhlabeni jikelele. E-US, ngaphezulu kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-16.4 bane-COPD, kanti ezinye izigidi kucatshangwa ukuthi ziyathinteka, futhi kuyimbangela yesithathu ehamba phambili yokufa. 

Izilinganiso ziphakamisa ukuthi abantu abayizigidi ezintathu e-UK bane-COPD, futhi abafika ezigidini ezimbili abanakho ukuxilongwa ngokusemthethweni. Yisifo sesibili samaphaphu esivame kakhulu e-UK, ngemuva kwesifuba somoya. 

Ukusabalala jikelele kwe-COPD kuyanda ngeminyaka, ikakhulukazi njengoba amacala kaningi engatholakali kuze kube yilapho abantu sebeneminyaka engama-50 kanti lesi sifo sesithuthukile. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi abantu kaningi abazi ngezimpawu eziyisixwayiso nokuthi ukuphefumula okuncane kungabangelwa okungaphezu kokumane nje kuguge. 

I-COPD ibucayi kangakanani?

I-COPD ibucayi futhi ingasongela impilo, ikakhulukazi uma ingelashwa futhi iphathwa kahle. 

Kunezigaba ezine ezisukela kokumnene ziye kokubi kakhulu. Esigabeni esinzima kakhulu, noma imiphi imisebenzi ejwayelekile yansuku zonke iphumela ekuphefumuleni ngokweqile futhi ikhwalithi yakho yempilo ithinteka kabi.  

  • I-COPD emaphakathi - ukuhamba kwakho komoya kukhawulelwe kancane futhi uzoba nokukhwehlela namafinyila kwesinye isikhathi, kepha ngeke ukubone kakhulu. 
  • I-COPD emaphakathi - ukuhamba kwakho komoya kubi kakhulu futhi uzovame ukuzizwa uphelelwa umoya ngemuva kokusebenza. Kulesi sigaba kungenzeka uqaphele ukuthi uhlangabezana nezimpawu futhi ufune usizo nezeluleko kudokotela wakho womndeni. 
  • I-COPD enamandla - ukuphefumula kwakho nokuphefumula komoya kunzima. Uzovame ukuzwa ukukhushulwa kwe-COPD, lapho kuvela khona izimpawu zakho. 
  • I-COPD ebucayi kakhulu - uzoba nokuqubuka okubi njalo nokuhamba komoya kwakho kukhawulwe kakhulu. Izinga lempilo yakho liba libi ngenxa yokuphefumula ngokweqile. 

Ngokushesha lapho kutholakala futhi kutholakala, kungasheshe kuqalwe ukwelashwa nezimpawu zilawulwe. 

Ngabe umuntu one-COPD angaba ngcono?

Alikho ikhambi eliphelele le-COPD futhi ukulimala kwamaphaphu akunakubuyiselwa emuva. Kodwa-ke, umuntu one-COPD angabona ukuthuthuka kwezimpawu zakhe, ikakhulukazi uma etholakala kusenesikhathi, nokuqhubeka kokulimala kwamaphaphu kungavinjelwa. Ukhiye wokuthola okungcono ukuthola inketho yokwelashwa efanelekile ukuze ivumelane nesigaba sakho se-COPD namasu wokufunda ukuze uziphathe ngokwakho izimpawu zakho. 

Kuyini isikhathi sokuphila nge-COPD?

I-COPD yisimo esibi sezempilo futhi ingasongela impilo. Kunezici eziningi ezihilelekile ekusebenzeni isikhathi sokuphila - udokotela wakho noma uchwepheshe wezokwelapha uzokwazi ukukululeka ngezimo zakho ngqo. 

Njengomhlahlandlela nokho, ucwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi i-COPD ebucayi futhi ebucayi kakhulu ingahlotshaniswa nokulahleka kwesikhathi sokuphila seminyaka ecishe ibe yisishiyagalombili kuye kweyisishiyagalolunye. 

 

Imithombo

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IBritish Thoracic Society - COPD

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