Imishanguzo etholakalayo yokulwa ne COVID-19 Ukutheleleka.

Imithi yokugoma iyindlela yokuvimbela ephumelela kunazo zonke COVID-19 futhi okuwukuphela kwekhambi lokuqeda ubhadane.

Imithi yokugoma ephumelelayo ilethwe emakethe ngejubane elingakaze libonwe.

Ngasekupheleni kuka-2020, izinhlangano zikahulumeni zezempilo emazweni ahlukahlukene emhlabeni wonke zaqala ukugoma COVID-19.

Imithi yokugoma eyisithupha isiyasetshenziswa manje.

IModerna: mRNA-1273

Lo muthi wokugoma waba ngowokuqala ukwakheka kwawo okwalungiswa. Ngisho nochwepheshe bamangala ngejubane lokukhula kwalo. Ngokwemibiko yabezindaba ebabazekayo, inkampani eyenza imithi yaseMelika iModerna isivele inayo ifomula yomuthi wayo wokugoma i-mRNA-1273 isilungile ngoJanuwari 13, ezinsukwini ezintathu ngemuva kokushicilelwa kofuzo lukaSars-CoV-2.

Njengoba igama liphakamisa, lokhu kungumuthi obizwa nge-mRNA. Kule nqubo, kusetshenziswa izingcezu ze-RNA zaleli gciwane ezenziwe ngokwenziwa ukuze zinikeze umzimba leyo miyalo elenza likwazi ukukhiqiza iphrotheni elilingana neqoqo elincane laleli gciwane. Lokhu kuqashelwa amasosha omzimba, aphendule futhi akhiqize amasosha omzimba nama-T cell. Uma i-coronavirus yangempela ivela, uhlelo lokuvikela lunempahla futhi lungavimbela ukutheleleka.

Ocwaningweni lweSigaba 3 lwezifundo ezingaphezu kwama-30,000, umuthi wokugoma (onikezwe ngemithamo emibili ngaphandle kwamasonto amane) ubungamaphesenti angama-94.5 ngempumelelo ekuvikeleni COVID-19, ikakhulukazi inkambo enqala yokutheleleka. Kodwa-ke, lo muthi wokugoma ubusebenza ngempumelelo ethe xaxa emaqenjini amancane abantu kunasebekhulile, okuyibo ababhekiwe kakhulu.

Uma kuqhathaniswa nomuthi wokugoma we-Biontech / Pfizer, umuthi wokugomela iModerna udale imiphumela emibi kubantu abaningi, obekubandakanya kakhulu ubuhlungu endaweni yokujova kanye nezimpawu ezinjengomkhuhlane, kepha lokhu kwehla ngokushesha okukhulu. Kodwa-ke, kukhona futhi inzuzo uma kuqhathaniswa nomuthi wokugoma we-Biontech / Pfizer: umuthi wokugomela iModerna, osuvele unelayisense futhi ugonywe e-US, ungagcinwa kuma-20 degrees Celsius kuze kube izinyanga eziyisithupha futhi kubhekwa ukuthi awudingi ukukhishwa okungu-70 ama-degree afana nomuthi wokugoma we-Biontech / Pfizer.

Ishidi lamaqiniso le-FDA: https://www.fda.gov/media/144638/download

I-BioNTech / i-Pfizer: NT162b2

Ngumnqobi omkhulu emjahweni womhlaba: Umuthi wokugoma we-NT162b2 ovela ezinkampanini zemithi i-BioNTech ne-Pfizer ube ngowokuqala ukususa isithiyo semvume emazweni amaningana futhi usuvele usetshenziswa ngezinga elikhulu: imithamo engaphezu kwezigidi ezimbili isivele igonyiwe .

Njengokugomela kukaPfizer, i-NT162b2 ingumuthi wokugoma we-mRNA: Umuthi wokugoma unikeza amaseli imiyalo ayidingayo ukuze akhiqize iphrotheni elingisa ingxenye yegciwane. Lokhu kuholela ekuphenduleni komzimba.

Imininingwane evela ocwaningweni olubaluleke kakhulu lweSigaba 3 olubandakanya izifundo ezicishe zibe ngama-44,000, isigamu sazo esathola umuthi wokugoma nengxenye ye-placebo, yayihlaba umxhwele. Umuthi wokugoma, imithamo yawo emibili unikezwa amasonto amathathu ahlukene, unikeze ukusebenza cishe kwamaphesenti angama-95 futhi wavikela nabantu abadala.

Imiphumela engemihle yayilinganiselwe: ubuhlungu endaweni yokujova kanye nezimpawu ezinjengomkhuhlane, ezadamba ngemuva kosuku olulodwa kuya kwezimbili. Ukuqapha kuyelulekwa, noma kunjalo, kubantu abajwayele ukushaqeka nge-anaphylactic.

Inkinga enkulu nge-NT162b2 isitoreji: umuthi kufanele uhanjiswe futhi ugcinwe okwesikhashana kuma-degree angama-70; emazingeni okushisa esijwayelekile esiqandisini, inempilo eshalofini yezinsuku ezinhlanu. Kodwa-ke, kulindeleke idatha entsha enganweba lesi sikhathi.

Ishidi lamaqiniso le-FDA: https://www.fda.gov/media/144414/download

I-AstraZeneca: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19

Lo mgomo uneqhaza elibalulekile okufanele ulibambe empini yomhlaba yokulwa nobhadane lwe-corona. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi umuthi wokugoma i-ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 ovela e-Oxford University kanye nenkampani eyenza imithi i-AstraZeneca ayibizi, ingakhiqizwa ngobuningi futhi ayidingi ukupholisa okukhethekile. Kodwa-ke, ngenxa yezinkinga zezilingo, ukuvunywa kwayo kubambezelekile ngandlela thile. Kepha manje i-ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 ivunyelwe e-UK nase India.

Umuthi wokugomela lo ubizwa ngokuthi umuthi wokugomela i-vector futhi uqukethe igciwane elibandayo le-chimpanzee elibandayo, okufakwa ngalo izinto zofuzo ezivela kwa-Sars-CoV-2 kumaseli womuntu njenge-vector. Lesi simiso se-vector sasetshenziswa futhi emuthini wokugoma i-Ebola.

Ukusebenza komuthi wokugoma kusenempikiswano: ukuvikelwa kwamaphesenti angama-90 kufinyelelwe lapho kunikezwa umthamo wesigamu kulandelwa umthamo ophelele ngezikhathi zenyanga eyodwa. Umthamo wokulinganisa owawuhloselwe ukufezekisa ukusebenza kwamaphesenti angama-62 kuphela.

Isikhulu esiphezulu se-AstraZeneca, uPascal Soriot, umemezele muva nje ukuthi kubukeka sengathi sekutholakele ifomula ethembisa ukusebenza ngokufana nemithi yokugoma ye-mRNA ,, yize engazange anikeze imininingwane ethile. Kodwa-ke, wamemezela ukushicilelwa ngale ndaba kungekudala. Kuze kube manje, akukho miphumela emibi eye yenzeka ezifundweni zokuhlola ezingama-40,000 - izifo ebezidala ukuphazamiseka okuncane kwesilingo seSigaba 3 bezingahlobene nomuthi wokugoma.

E-UK, umuthi wokugoma wathola ukuvunyelwa okuphuthumayo ekupheleni kukaDisemba 2020 futhi imijovo yokugoma yaqala ngoJanuwari 4. Okukhethekile ngecebo lokugoma laseBrithani mayelana neChAdOx1 nCoV-19 ukuthi, ngenxa yokushoda komuthi, inhloso ukugoma (ngokwengxenye) abantu abaningi ngangokunokwenzeka ngomthamo wokuqala kuqala.

Umthamo wesibili kuphela ngemuva kwezinyanga ezintathu

Lokhu kufanele kuqinisekise ukuvikeleka enkambweni ebukhali yesifo ngokushesha okukhulu. Umthamo wesibili kufanele unikezwe kuphela ngemuva kwezinyanga ezintathu, osekelwa ochwepheshe abazimele ngokubheka izibalo zokutheleleka. Kucatshangwa ukuthi ukuphathwa kamuva kwe- “booster”, okungukuthi ukugoma kwesibili okuyingxenye, akufanele kube yinkinga futhi kungahle kwandise nokusebenza kahle.

Uhulumeni.UK: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/regulatory-approval-of-covid-19-vaccine-astrazeneca/conditions-of-authorisation-for-covid-19-vaccine-astrazeneca

Ishidi lamaqiniso le-FDA alikatholakali

UJohnson & Johnson: JNJ-78436735 noma i-Ad26.COV2.S

Umuthi wokugoma kaJohnson & Johnson uphathwa njengomthamo owodwa, ngokungafani nemithi yokugoma yemithi emibili ye-coronavirus evela ePfizer, Moderna nase-AstraZeneca.

Umuthi wokugoma kaJohnson & Johnson ungumphumela wamashumi eminyaka ocwaningo emithini yokugoma esuselwa ku-adenovirus. NgoJulayi, okokuqala kwavunyelwa ukusetshenziswa ngokujwayelekile - umuthi wokugomela i-Ebola, nawo owakhiqizwa nguJohnson & Johnson. Le nkampani futhi iqhuba izivivinyo zemithi yokugoma esuselwa ku-adenovirus yezinye izifo, kubandakanya i-HIV neZika. Eminye imishanguzo ye-coronavirus nayo isuselwa kuma-adenoviruses, njengalawo akhiqizwa yi-Oxford University ne-AstraZeneca.

Ocwaningweni lwabahlanganyeli abangama-43,783 e-US, Latin America naseNingizimu Afrika, umuthi wokugoma uvikele cishe ama-66% we COVID-19 amacala. Le nkampani ithole ubufakazi bokungavikeleki kwabahlanganyeli emasontweni amabili ngemuva kokugoma, okubonakale kuqina ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Umuthi wokugoma uphinde wavikela kuma-85% we-average-to-severe COVID-19 amacala - uhlobo olungaholela ekutheni umuntu afune usizo lwezokwelapha - futhi kuze kube manje ahlinzekele ukuvikelwa okuphelele ekufeni COVID-19.

Imiphumela emibi ebikwe ngokuhlangana noJanssen COVID-19 umuthi wokugoma ubandakanya: Ukuphendula kwesiza somjovo: ubuhlungu, ukubomvu kwesikhumba, nokuvuvukala kanye nemiphumela emibi ejwayelekile: Ubuhlungu bekhanda, ukuzwa ukhathele kakhulu, ubuhlungu bemisipha, isicanucanu, nomkhuhlane.

Ishidi lamaqiniso le-FDA: https://www.fda.gov/media/146305/download

IGamaleja-Institute Moskau: Sputnik V

Umuthi wokugoma waseRussia uSputnik V, ofana nomuthi wokugomela i-AZD1222 wase-Oxford University kanye nomenzi wawo u-AZD95 usekelwe kuma-adenoviruses, ngokusobala ufeza ukusebenza okungcono kokuvikela, okuthiwa kungaphezulu kwama-XNUMX%, ngokusho kwesikhangiso kwabezindaba esikhwameni sokutshala imali ngqo se-RDIF.

Umqedazwe weSARS-CoV-2 usheshise ukwakhiwa kwemithi yokugoma yenoveli ngaphambilini eyayibhekwa njengeyokuhlola. Lokhu kufaka phakathi i-AZD1222 evela kumkhiqizi u-AstraZeneca no-Sputnik V abavela eGamaleja Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology eMoscow.

Yomibili le mithi yokugoma isebenzisa ama-adenoviruses njengamaveector ukuletha izakhi zofuzo zeprotheni ye-spike kumaseli emisipha, lapho kutholakala khona umuthi wokugoma uqobo. Le nqubo isungula izinto ezintsha. Ama-Adenoviruses asetshenziswe kuphela njengezimoto eziletha izakhi zofuzo ekwelashweni kofuzo ngokuya ngohlelo olulodwa. Imigomo ngokuvamile idinga imithamo eminingi.

Njengoba amasosha omzimba nawo angakhiqiza amasosha omzimba alwa nama-adenoviruses ngemuva kokugoma kokuqala, umphumela wesilinganiso sesibili ungaba buthakathaka uma amasosha omzimba eqeda amagciwane ngaphambi kokuba athelele amangqamuzana ahlosiwe.

Abaphenyi baseRussia babelindele ubungozi bokwakhiwa kwama-antibody kuqhathaniswa ne-vector ngakho-ke bakhetha amagciwane ahlukene ama-2. Umuthi wokugomela umthamo wokuqala ususelwe ohlotsheni lwe-26 adenovirus (rAd26). Ngomthamo wesibili, uhlobo lwe-5 adenovirus (rAd5) lusetshenzisiwe. Lokhu kungachaza ukuthi kungani ukusebenza okuphezulu kokuvikela esifundweni esiqhubekayo seSigaba 2/3 bekuphakeme kunasesifundweni esenziwe ngumkhiqizi u-AstraZeneca.

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30923-3/fulltext

ISinopharm China: umuthi wokugoma we-CNBG

I-China ivume umuthi wokugoma weSinopharm ukuze usetshenziswe ngokujwayelekile ngoDisemba 31,2020. Futhi kuvunyelwe e-UAE.

Ngisho nangaphambi kokuvunyelwa ngokomthetho, imithamo engaba yizigidi ezingama-4.5 yomuthi wokugoma yayisetshenziswa eChina, ikakhulukazi kubasebenzi bezempilo noma kubasebenzi bamabhizinisi kahulumeni. Manje iziphathimandla sezikhiphe imvume esemthethweni kumuthi wokugoma wokuqala we-corona, umuthi wokugoma ovela eSinopharm kahulumeni.

Ngokusho kukaSinopharm, umuthi wokugoma uzuze ukusebenza ngamaphesenti angama-79 ezilingo. Ihlinzekwa ngamanani amabili. Imithi yokugoma evela ePfizer / BioNTech naseModerna ithole ukusebenza ngempumelelo okuphakathi kwamaphesenti angama-95 no-94, ngokulandelana. Ngokungafani nale mithi yokugoma, umuthi wokugoma waseChina awusebenzisi ubunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo. Esikhundleni salokho, kususelwa kunqubo yakudala yokuvusa impendulo yomzimba ngokubulala amagciwane e-corona.

Kuze kube manje, ukuthembela kwamazwe omhlaba emithini yokugoma yaseChina bekushoda kakhulu, ngokwengxenye ngoba imbalwa imiphumela yokuhlolwa ekhishiwe. Izingqapheli zicabanga ukuthi iChina kuzofanele yenze idatha ethe xaxa yocwaningo itholakale ukuze ithole ukuzethemba.

Usuku: March 19, 2021