Izinhlobo zokwaliwa komzimba

Ukungezwani komzimba kuhlukaniswa nokwaliwa okwaliwa yi-IgE nokwelashwa nge-non-IgE.

Ukungezwani komzimba ne-IgE

Ku-IgE ukungezwani komzimba okuvikelwe amasosha omzimba akhiqiza inani elikhulu lesigaba sama-antibody esaziwa ngokuthi ama-IgE antibodies, aqondene ngqo ne-allergen ethile ecasulayo. La ma-antibody e-IgE abophela ebusweni bamaseli emzimbeni abizwa ngokuthi "ama-mast cells" enza i-IgE-sensitized. Lawa maseli angabe esekhomba ukungezwani komzimba ngokuzayo lapho ehlangana nomzimba. Le nqubo ibizwa ngokuthi ukuzwela, futhi kulesi sigaba akukho komzimba izimpawu zokungezwani komzimba.

Amaseli amancane akhona esikhumbeni, emehlweni, ekhaleni, emlonyeni, emphinjeni, esiswini nasemathunjini. Ngokuzayo lapho sihlangana ne-allergen efanayo amaseli we-mast ayikhomba njengesitha futhi akhiqize i-histamine namanye amakhemikhali. Ukukhishwa kwalezi zinto kumaseli amangqamuzana kudala izimpawu zokungezwani komzimba. Emakhaleni ukukhishwa kwe-histamine kukhombisa izimpawu zempumu egijimayo, ikhala elilumayo, ukuthimula okuvame ukuhlotshaniswa namehlo abomvu alumayo.

Ezimpawu zesikhumba kufaka ukubomvu nokuqubuka kwembabazane. Kuma-tubes okuphefumula ukungezwani komzimba kubangela ukushaywa umoya, ukukhwehlela nokushoda komoya, kanti emathunjini izimpawu ezinjengokungaphatheki kahle esiswini, isicanucanu, ukugabha nohudo kungenzeka. Ukusabela okweqile komzimba kuyaziwa nangokuthi i-anaphylaxis, futhi ingasongela impilo.

Ukungezwani komzimba okungeyona i-IgE

Ukusabela okungekho ngaphakathi kwe-IgE, okuchazwe kahle emtholampilo nakwezesayensi, kukholakala ukuthi yi-T-cell-mediated. Le ndlela ihlobene nokuphazamiseka okufana ne-eczema yokuxhumana (i-allergen contact dermatitis). Ngenkathi izimpawu zokungezwani komzimba ne-IgE zenzeka ngokushesha futhi ngokushesha ngemuva kokuchayeka ku-allergen, lokhu kungenzeka kungabi njalo ngezifo ezingezona ze-IgE eziphakathi lapho izimpawu zingavela khona kamuva, imvamisa kungama-24-48 h.

Impendulo enamandla: yilokhu esijwayele ukukuthi ukungezwani komzimba nezinto ezithile. Ukuphendula ngokushesha kwenzeka ngaphakathi kwemizuzu engu-15 kuya kwengu-30 yokuchayeka ku-allergen. Ngesikhathi sesigaba sokuqala sabalamuli bamakhemikhali abakhishwe ngamaseli amakhulu afaka i-histamine, i-prostaglandins, i-leukotrienes ne-thromboxane bakhiqiza izimpendulo zezicubu zasendaweni ezibonisa ukusabela okweqile. Emgudwini wokuphefumula ngokwesibonelo, lokhu kufaka phakathi ukuthimula, i-edema kanye ne-mucus secretion, ne-vasodilatation emakhaleni, okuholela ekuvalekeni kwamakhala, nase-bronchoconstriction emaphashini, okuholela ekuphefumuleni.

Impendulo yesigaba sokugcina: Kuvela emahoreni angu-4-6 ngemuva kokunyamalala kwezimpawu zesigaba sokuqala futhi kungahlala izinsuku noma amasonto. Ngesikhathi sokuphendula kwesigaba sekwephuzile, ukungena kwamangqamuzana, ukufakwa kwe-fibrin nokubhujiswa kwezicubu okuvela ekuphenduleni okwenziwe komzimba okuqhubekayo kuholela ekwandeni kwe-bronchial reactivity, i-edema kanye nokuqashwa okuthe xaxa kwamaseli. Lokhu kuphawula kuphakamisa ukuthi i-IgE iyasiza ekuphenduleni kwesistimu yomzimba kuma-allergen ngenxa yekhono layo lokubangela ukukhululwa komlamuleli wamaseli, okuholela ngqo ekuphenduleni kwesigaba sokuqala futhi sekwephuzile.

Ukungezwani komzimba ne- GAAPP_

 

Yiziphi izakhi ezibandakanyekile ekuphenduleni okweqile:

I-Allergen Imvamisa iphrotheyini, engadala ukusabela okweqile.

I-Immunoglobulin (IgE) I-antibody ebandakanyeka ekuphendukeni komzimba.

Iseli elikhulu Ingabe amaseli omzimba atholakala esikhunjeni, emgodini wokuphefumula nasemgudwini wokugaya ukudla. Ama-molecule e-IgE anamathiselwe ebusweni bawo. I-Histamine nabanye abalamuli bakhiqizwa ngamaseli amangqamuzana, akhishwa ngesikhathi sokungazwani komzimba okuletha izimpawu zokungezwani komzimba.

Umlando Igcinwa ngaphakathi kwe-mast cell futhi ikhishwe ngenkathi ukusabela okweqile. Unamandla okuvula imithambo yegazi (i-vasodilation), akhuphule ukungena kwemithambo yegazi (ukuvuza oketshezi) futhi kuvuselele izinzwa. Lokhu kubangela ububomvu, ukuvuvukala nokunwaya.