I-asthma yisimo samaphaphu esingapheli esithinta izindlela zakho zomoya, noma amashubhu we-bronchial. Kubangela ukuthi izindiza zakho zomoya zinciphise, zivuvuke futhi zikhiqize amafinyila engeziwe, wona okwenza kube nzima kakhulu ukuphefumula. Ukuncipha kwemigwaqo yomoya kukwenza uzizwe ungaphefumuli kahle, uvunguze noma uqhume ukukhwehlela.

Isifuba somoya singathinta abantu bayo yonke iminyaka kodwa ngenkathi singaba mnene kwabanye, kwabanye singaba nzima kakhulu. Kulabo abathinteke kakhulu, kungaba nomthelela omkhulu emisebenzini ejwayelekile yansuku zonke noma kubangele ukusongela impilo ukuhlasela kwe-asthma.

Alikho ikhambi lesifuba somoya. Noma kunjalo, ingaphathwa kahle futhi nezimpawu zilawulwe. Akuwona wonke umuntu one-asthma onezimpawu ezifanayo noma ukuqina futhi kungashintsha ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Lesi ngesinye sezizathu zokuthi kungani kufanele uhlole njalo nodokotela wakho noma umhlengikazi wesifuba somoya, ukuze bakwazi ukuqapha i-asthma yakho futhi baguqule ukwelashwa kwakho uma kunesidingo.

Funda ngezansi ukuthola amaqiniso ngesifo somoya i-asthma esingapheliyo, izimpawu nezimbangela, izinhlobo ezahlukene nokuthi kutholakala kanjani nokuthi kulashwa kanjani.

Izimpawu

Ezinye zezimpawu nezimpawu ezijwayelekile zifaka:

  • Ukuphelelwa umoya
  • Umuzwa wengcindezi, ukuqina noma ubuhlungu esifubeni sakho
  • Ukushaya
  • Umsindo oshaya amakhwela noma ovunguzayo lapho uphuma (ukuvunguza kuvame kakhulu ezinganeni ezine-asthma)
  • Ukuhlaselwa kokukhwehlela nokuphefumula okwenziwa kubi kakhulu uma unomkhuhlane, umkhuhlane noma esinye isifo sokuphefumula
  • Inkinga yokulala ebusuku ngenxa yokuphelelwa umoya, ukukhwehlela noma ukuphefumula.

Akuwona wonke umuntu one-asthma onezimpawu ezifanayo futhi izimpawu ezahlukahlukene zingavela ngezikhathi ezahlukahlukene zonyaka nangezikhathi ezahlukahlukene empilweni yakho. Izimpawu nazo zingahluka kusuka kumnene kuya kokubi kakhulu.

Uma i-asthma yakho ishintsha noma iqhuma phezulu, lapho-ke ungathola ukuthi izimpawu ziba zimbi kakhulu kunokujwayelekile. Ungakuthola kunzima kakhulu ukuphefumula, uhlangabezana nokushaywa ngamandla futhi udinga ukusebenzisa i-inhaler esheshayo yokusiza kaningi.

Kwenzekani ngesikhathi sokuhlaselwa yisifuba somoya?

Lapho kwenzeka ukuhlaselwa yisifuba somoya, imisipha ezungeze imigwaqo yomoya izoqala iqinise - lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi yi-bronchospasm. I-bronchospasm yenza isifuba sakho sizizwe siqinile futhi yenza kube nzima ukubamba umoya wakho. Ungenza umsindo wokushaya umlozi lapho uzama ukuphefumula, noma uqala ukuphefumula. Ulwelwesi olusezindleleni zomoya luyovuvukala luvuvuke, kukhiqizwe amafinyila amaningi, kanye nesikhwebu sizoba mkhulu kunokujwayelekile.

Uma une-asthma emnene, ukuthatha i-reliever inhaler yakho kufanele kuqale ukusiza ukuhlaselwa kungakapheli imizuzu. Kepha uma une-asthma ebucayi, ungadinga ukunakekelwa kwezokwelapha, ngoba kungasongela impilo.

Izimpawu zokuxwayisa zokuqala zokuhlaselwa yisifuba somoya

I-asthma yisimo esingalapheki sesikhathi eside, kepha lapho kwenzeka ukuhlaselwa yisifuba somoya, kuyisimo esibi. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ukuhlaselwa okungazelelwe okwenzeka kumuntu ophethwe yisifo esingelapheki.

Kunezimpawu zokuxwayisa zakuqala ongazibheka ezingaphakamisa ukuthi kungenzeka ukuhlaselwa yisifuba somoya. Izimpawu zivame ukuba mnene, kepha kungasiza ukuzibona ukuze wenze konke okusemandleni ukuvimbela ukuhlaselwa yisifuba somoya okugcwele.

Izimpawu zokuqala nezimpawu okufanele uzibheke zifaka phakathi:

  • Ukuphelelwa umoya
  • Ukukhathala okukhulu lapho uzivocavoca umzimba
  • Ukukhala nokukhwehlela ngemuva kokuzivocavoca
  • Ukuba nokukhwehlela njalo, ikakhulukazi uma kubi kakhulu ubusuku
  • Ukwehla komsebenzi wakho ojwayelekile wamaphaphu (ongalinganiswa ngokusebenzisa imitha yokugeleza ephakeme)
  • Ukungezwani komzimba noma umkhuhlane, kufaka phakathi isiminyaminya samakhala, ukuthimula, umphimbo obuhlungu nekhanda.

Uma unohlelo lwesenzo se-asthma, ungalungisa imithi yakho ngokuhambisana nalezi zimpawu zokuxwayisa zakuqala. Uma ungenalo uhlelo lokusebenza, noma unezimpawu ze-asthma flare-up, cela iseluleko kudokotela wakho.

Ziyini izimbangela?

Imbangela ngqo ye-asthma ayaziwa futhi izimbangela zingahluka kumuntu nomuntu. Kodwa-ke, kuyaziwa lokho i-asthma isebenza emindenini (uma umzali noma ingane yakini inesifuba somoya, nawe unamathuba amaningi okuthi ube nayo) nokuthi izici zemvelo zingabamba iqhaza.

I-asthma ivame ukwenzeka njengomphumela wokuphendula kwamasosha omzimba ku-allergen yemvelo, njenge-pollen noma izibungu zothuli. Akuwona wonke umuntu odalulwe ku-allergen efanayo ophendula kukho, noma angasabela ngendlela ehlukile. Yize izizathu zokuthi kungani i-allergen ethile ithinta umuntu oyedwa ngaphezu kwabanye kungacaci ngokuphelele, kungenzeka ukuthi izakhi zofuzo ezizuzwe njengefa zingabandakanyeka.

Ezinye izinto ezinobungozi ezingakhuphula amathuba akho okuba nesifuba somoya zifaka:

  • Ufuzo - ukuba nelungu lomndeni, njengomzali noma ingane yakini, enesifuba somoya
  • Ukuba nokungezwani komzimba, njenge-hay fever, i-eczema noma ukungezwani kokudla (lokhu kwaziwa njengezimo ze-atopic)
  • Ukuba ngumuntu obhemayo
  • Ukuvezwa intuthu kagwayi noma intuthu, okufaka phakathi nobuntwana noma ukukhulelwa
  • Ukuba ne-bronchiolitis (ukutheleleka okuphansi kokuphefumula) useyingane
  • Ukuzalwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi noma ngesisindo esiphansi sokuzalwa.

Izihlungi

Izindlela zomoya eziya emaphashini zivame ukuvuleka, zivumela umoya ukuthi ungene ngokukhululeka ngaphakathi nangaphandle kwamaphaphu. Kodwa-ke, abantu abane-asthma banemigwaqo yomoya ebucayi ecasukile futhi evuthayo. Izimpawu zesifuba somoya zibangelwa lapho imimoya yomoya iqinisa noma incipha ekuphenduleni izimbangela, okuholela esikhaleni esincane ezindleleni zokuphefumula.

Izimpawu zingabangelwa ukucasula okuhlukahlukene, izinto nezimo. Izimbangela ezaziwayo zifaka:

  • Ukuvezwa intuthu, ukungcola noma intuthu
  • Izifo zokuphefumula ezifana nemikhuhlane noma umkhuhlane
  • Ukungezwani komzimba, okufana nezibungu zothuli, uboya besilwane, izimpaphe noma impova
  • Izinguquko esimweni sezulu, kufaka phakathi umoya obandayo, ukuduma kwezulu, ukushisa, umswakama nanoma yikuphi ukushintsha okungazelelwe kokushisa
  • Ukuthatha imithi, njengama-anti-inflammatory painkillers
  • Ukuzwa imizwa enamandla njengokucindezeleka
  • Ukudalulwa kumanzi noma isikhunta
  • Ukuzivocavoca umzimba, ikakhulukazi uma wenza kanjalo esimweni sezulu esibandayo nesomile
  • Ama-Sulphites kanye ne-preservatives engezwe kokunye ukudla neziphuzo, kufaka phakathi izithelo ezomisiwe, imfanzi, amazambane asetshenzisiwe, ubhiya newayini
  • Isifo se-reflux se-Gastroesophageal (GERD), lapho isisu esiswini sibuyela khona emqaleni.

Uma wazi ukuthi yini okungaba yizimbangela zakho kufanele uzame ukuzigwema, lapho kungenzeka khona, ukusiza ukulawula i-asthma yakho.

Izinhlobo zesifuba somoya

Ngokungafani nezinye izimo zezempilo, alukho uhlobo olulodwa lwe-asthma - luthinta abantu abahlukene ngezindlela ezihlukile. Njengoba ulwazi nokuqonda kuye kwathuthuka eminyakeni edlule, ochwepheshe bezokwelapha bathole izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene.

Ukwazi ukuthi yiluphi uhlobo lwesifuba somoya onalo kungakusiza ukuthi ufunde ukuthi ungaluphatha kanjani ngempumelelo futhi unciphise ubungozi bokuhlangana nezimbangela ezaziwayo.

Isifuba somoya i-aleji

I-Allergic, noma i-atopic asthma, uhlobo lwesifuba somoya olubangelwa ama-allergener, njenge-pollen, izibungu zothuli, uboya besilwane noma izimpaphe. Uma unayo isifuba somoya i-aleji, unethuba eliphakeme lokuthi unezinye izinhlobo zokwaliwa komzimba, njenge-hay fever, i-allergies yokudla noma i-eczema.

Isifuba somoya emsebenzini

Kubangelwa umsebenzi wakho noma umsebenzi. Kuvame ukuhlotshaniswa ne-asthma yokugula futhi kungabangelwa ukuvezwa komusi, amakhemikhali, uthuli noma ezinye izimbangela ohlangabezana nazo njalo phakathi nomsebenzi wakho.

Isifuba somoya sonyaka

Kwenzeka kuphela ngezikhathi ezithile zonyaka. Izimpawu zingaqhamuka ehlobo lapho amazinga empova ephezulu, noma ebusika lapho isimo sezulu sibanda kakhulu.

I-asthma engeyona iguliswa

I-non-allergen-, noma i-asthma engeyona i-atopic, ifomu le-asthma elingabangelwa ukungezwani komzimba. Lolu hlobo luvame ukuqala kamuva lapho usumdala.

Isifuba somoya esibangelwa ukuzivocavoca

Kwezinye izimo, kungabangelwa ukuzikhandla komzimba futhi kubizwe i-asthma ebangelwa ukuzivocavoca. Izimpawu zingaba zimbi kakhulu ngesikhathi nangemva kokuzivocavoca.

I-asthma yobuntwana

I-asthma yobuntwana kuvamile futhi kuqala kwenzeka ngesikhathi sobuntwana. Kwesinye isikhathi lolu hlobo lungaba ngcono noma lunyamalale ngokuphelele njengoba ukhula, yize lungabuya futhi lapho usumdala.

Isifuba somoya sabantu abadala

Isifuba somoya sabantu abadala ibizwa kanjalo njengoba iqala ebudaleni, kunokuba ebuntwaneni. Ngezinye izikhathi kubizwa ngokuthi i-asthma yokuqala kwesikhathi. Kungabangelwa yizinto ezenzeka emsebenzini nezemvelo, ama-hormone abesifazane, ukubhema kanye nezehlakalo zokuphila ezicindezelayo.

Isifuba somoya esinzima

I-asthma enzima uhlobo lwe-asthma okunzima ukuphatha nokulawula. Izimpawu kungenzeka ukuthi ziqhubeke, yize kukhona ukwelashwa, futhi ukuhlaselwa njalo kuvamile.

Isifuba somoya esibucayi

Isifuba somoya esibucayi kuthinta abantu kakhulu futhi kungaba nomthelela omkhulu empilweni yansuku zonke. Kungenzeka ukuthi ube nesifuba somoya uma izimpawu zakho ziqhubeka naphezu kokunqunywa imithamo ephezulu ye-steroids emuncwe noma eminye imithi, futhi ungadinga amaphilisi e-steroid wesikhathi eside.

Sifo

Uma udokotela wakho esola ukuthi ungaba nesifuba somoya, bazokubuza ngezimpawu zakho bese benza izivivinyo ukuxilonga it. Bazobheka ikhala lakho, umphimbo nemigwaqo yomoya engenhla, balalele ukuphefumula kwakho usebenzisa i-stethoscope bese bethatha umlando wezokwelapha ojwayelekile.

Ukuhlolwa kwemisebenzi yamaphaphu kuzokwenziwa ukubona ukuthi amaphaphu akho asebenza kanjani. Ukuhlolwa okuvamile okusetshenzisiwe kufaka:

  • I-Spirometry - lapho ushaya khona emshinini okala ukuthi usheshe uphefumulele phezulu nokuthi ungakanani umoya okwazi ukuwubamba emaphashini akho.
  • Ukuhlolwa kokugeleza okuphezulu - lapho ushaya khona into encane ephathwa ngesandla futhi ilinganisa ukuthi usheshe uphefumulele phezulu kanjani.
  • Ukuhlolwa kwe-FeNO - lapho uphefumulela emshinini okala izinga le-nitric oxide ekuphefumuleni kwakho (lokhu kungagqamisa ukuvuvukala emaphashini akho).

Kwezinye izimo, ungahle ube ne-x-ray yesifuba ukukhipha ezinye izimbangela zezimpawu zakho.

Ngokuya ngemiphumela yokuhlolwa kwakho, i-asthma yakho izohlukaniswa ngezigaba ezine ezijwayelekile:

Ukuhlukaniswa kwesifuba somoya Izimpawu nezimpawu
Izikhawu ezimaphakathi Izimpawu ezimnene kuze kube yizinsuku ezimbili ngesonto kuze kube sebusuku obubili ngenyanga
Ukuphikelela okumaphakathi Izimpawu ezingaphezu kwesibili ngesonto, kepha hhayi ngaphezu kwesisodwa ngosuku olulodwa
Ukuphikelela okumaphakathi Izimpawu kanye ngosuku nangaphezu kobusuku obubodwa ngesonto
Ukuphikelela okukhulu Izimpawu usuku lonke ezinsukwini eziningi futhi njalo ebusuku

Ukwelashwa nemithi

Asthma ukwelashwa nemithi ukusiza ukulawula izimpawu, ukuze uphile impilo esebenzayo nejwayelekile. Njengoba wonke umuntu ehlangabezana nesifuba somoya ngokuhlukile, udokotela wakho uzohlanganisa uhlelo lokwelashwa kwesifuba somoya olwenzelwe wena ngqo.

Izinhlobo ezimbili ze-inhalers ezisetshenziselwa ukudambisa nokuvikela i-asthma yilezi:

  • I-Reliever inhaler - lokhu kusetshenziselwa ukwelapha izimpawu zakho lapho zenzeka futhi kuvame ukusebenza kungakapheli nemizuzu. I-inhaler ivame ukuba luhlaza okwesibhakabhaka.
  • Isivimbeli inhaler - lokhu kuqukethe umuthi we-steroid futhi usetshenziswa nsuku zonke, njengoba kunqunyiwe, ukunciphisa inani lokuvuvukala nokuzwela ezindleleni zakho zomoya. Kuzosiza ukumisa izimpawu ze-asthma ezenzeka futhi kuvame ukuba nsundu.

Ngokuya ngezimpawu zakho, amaphilisi noma ezinye izindlela zokwelashwa nazo zingabekwa. Izindlela zokwelapha ezihambisanayo, njengezikhethekile izivivinyo zokuphefumula, kunganconywa ukukusiza ufunde ukuphefumula kangcono nesifuba somoya futhi wandise amandla akho wamaphaphu, amandla kanye nempilo.