Isifuba somoya yisimo samaphaphu sesikhathi eside esithinta abantu abalinganiselwa ezigidini ezingama-300 emhlabeni jikelele. Abantu abadala abangaphezu kwezigidi eziyi-19 banesifuba somoya e-USA (lokho cishe kungu-1 kwabangu-12). E-UK, inani labantu abadala abelapha imishanguzo yesifuba somoya lingaphezu kwezigidi ezi-4 ngokufanayo elisebenza cishe koyedwa kwabangu-1 kubantu abadala.

Uma une-asthma ulwelwesi lwangaphakathi lendlela yakho yomoya lubucayi, luyavuvukala futhi luvuvuke futhi lukhiqize amafinyila amaningi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, imisipha ebushelelezi ezungeze imigwaqo yomoya iyaqina. Kuholela ekutheni imigwaqo yomoya ibe mincane (inqubo ebizwa nge-bronchoconstriction) okwenza kube nzima ukuphefumula nokuphuma.

E-UK, iNational Health Service isebenzisa u- £ 1 billion njalo ngonyaka ukwelapha nokunakekela abantu abane-asthma. Izindleko zaminyaka yonke zesifuba somoya e-Europe zilinganiselwa ku- € 17.7 billion, kanti e-US izindleko zingama- $ 80 billion.

Yini i-asthma yabantu abadala?

I-asthma eqala abantu abadala i-asthma ekhula njengomuntu omdala (imvamisa labo abaneminyaka engaphezu kwengu-20), yize iningi labantu abane-asthma yabantu abadala benesimo njengengane. Kwabaningi izimpawu zabo zanyamalala phakathi neminyaka yabo yobusha, kepha umuntu oyedwa kwabathathu uthola ukubuya kwesifuba somoya sebekhulile. Abanye abantu baba nesifuba somoya okokuqala ngqa njengomuntu omdala - empeleni, isimo singakhula nganoma yisiphi isikhathi.

H2 Yini ebangela i-asthma yabantu abadala?

Asazi ngokuqinisekile ukuthi yini ebangela i-asthma yabantu abadala kepha kungenzeka kube yinhlanganisela yezemvelo, ngokushintsha izakhi zofuzo nezinto zomsebenzi. Ithuba lakho lokuba nesifuba somoya njengomuntu omdala liphakeme uma:

  • Had I-asthma yobuntwana noma ngabe ubungenazo izimpawu iminyaka eminingana
  • Ngabe abesifazane - abesifazane abaningi kunabesilisa banesifuba somoya ikakhulukazi ngemuva kweminyaka yobudala engama-20, ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa nasesikhathini sokuya esikhathini ngakho amazinga e-hormone aguqukayo angadlala indima lapha
  • Bachayeke ku-allergen emsebenzini (okubizwa ngokuthi i-asthma emsebenzini) - njengesikhunta, uthuli lwokhuni, amakhemikhali, ufulawa, ama-aerosols nokunye). Cishe i-15% yayo yonke i-asthma yabantu abadala ihlobene nomsebenzi
  • Phila ngobumpofu
  • Yiba ukungezwani komzimba, njenge-hay fever
  • Yiba nesihlobo esine-asthma noma i-allergies
  • Ingabe ukhuluphele ngokweqile - ukukhuluphala ngokweqile kubonakala kukhulisa kakhulu ubungozi besifuba somoya
  • Yiba nokugula noma ukutheleleka, ikakhulukazi ukutheleleka ngegciwane lokuphefumula.

Uma une-asthma yabantu abadala eyodwa noma ezingaphezulu ezibangela izimpawu zakho zibe zimbi kakhulu izimpawu zakho, ikakhulukazi uma i-asthma yakho ingalawulwa kahle, kufaka phakathi:

  • Ukutheleleka ngegciwane
  • Ezinye izidakamizwa, kufaka phakathi i-beta-blockers, i-aspirin, ibuprofen nezinye izidakamizwa ezingezona ukuvuvukala
  • Ukubhema osikilidi noma ukuqhuma, intuthu yemoto nezinye izinto ezingcolisa umoya
  • Ama-Allergen ekhaya noma emsebenzini
  • Isimo sezulu esibi kakhulu
  • Ukuzivocavoca
  • Ukucindezeleka noma imizwa eyeqisayo.

I-Adult vs i-asthma yobuntwana

Kuvamile ukuthi izingane zibe nezimpawu zesifuba somoya ezifika zidlule, ngokwesibonelo ezibangelwa ukungezwani komzimba noma ukutheleleka okuphefumula. I-asthma yokuqala kwabantu abadala iba nezimpawu eziphikelelayo ezingavamisile ukuhlanganiswa nezimbangela zokungezwani komzimba.

Cishe umuntu oyedwa kwabayishumi abane-asthma banezimpawu ezingalawuleki kanye nokwanda naphezu kokwelashwa. Isifuba somoya `` esilukhuni ukuselapha '' singanciphisa izinga lempilo futhi siholele nasekufeni okuningi kunalokho esikubonayo ngesifuba somoya sobuntwana. Asazi ukuthi kungani i-asthma yabantu abadala ingaphenduli kahle ekwelashweni njenge-asthma yobuntwana. Kungenzeka ngoba amaphaphu abantu abadala angaba lukhuni futhi asebenze kahle ngaphansi kwamaphaphu engane. Futhi ukuphendula komzimba kungashintsha njengoba sikhula.

Kuyaduduza ukukhumbula ukuthi ukufa okubangelwa yisifuba somoya lapho usumdala kusengavamile.

Abantu abadala futhi bathambekele ekubeni nezinye izifo ezithinteka yisifuba somoya kanye nemithi yokwaliwa komzimba. Isibonelo i-oral steroids ingazenza zibe zimbi izimpawu ze-glaucoma, i-cataract ne-osteoporosis.

Ziyini izimpawu zesifuba somoya kubantu abadala?

Izimpawu zesifuba somoya kubantu abadala zifaka:

  • Ukushaya
  • Ukushisa
  • Ukuzizwa uphelelwa umoya
  • Uzwa ukuqina noma ubuhlungu esifubeni sakho.

Sitholakala kanjani isifuba somoya esidala

Uma ucubungula ukuxilongwa kwesifuba somoya, udokotela wakho uzokucela ukuthi:

  • Chaza izimpawu zakho nokuthi zenzeka nini
  • Chaza umlando wakho womndeni, indawo osebenzela kuyo, isimo sasekhaya nendlela ophila ngayo
  • Thatha ukuhlolwa kokuphefumula okukodwa noma okuningi (ukusebenza kwamaphaphu).

Udokotela wakho futhi angakuqala ekuhlolweni kokwelashwa kwemithi ye-asthma ngaphambi kokuxilongwa kuqinisekiswe.

Izimpawu ze-asthma zingadideka nezinye izimo, ikakhulukazi kubantu abadala asebekhulile. Izifo ezilingisa isifuba somoya zibandakanya i-hernia, izinkinga zesisu, isifo senhliziyo, inyumoniya, isifo samathambo nesifo samaphaphu esingapheliyo.

Izivivinyo zokuphefumula zokuxilonga i-asthma yabantu abadala

Ukuhlolwa kokuphefumula kwesifuba somoya kubandakanya:

  • I-Spirometry - ungakanani umoya ongaphefumula ngawo ngesikhathi esethiwe.
  • Ukubuyiselwa emuva kweBronchodilator (BDR) - kulapho kwenziwa izivivinyo ezimbili ze-spirometry ngaphambi nangemva komthamo owodwa womuthi we-bronchodilator ukubona ukuthi ukwelashwa kuyasiza yini. Ukuhlolwa okuhle kwe-BDR kuvame ukuqinisekisa ukuxilongwa kwesifuba somoya.
  • Ukuqapha kwe-Peak expiratory flow (PEF) - kukala indlela ongaphefumula ngayo ngokushesha. Ungacelwa ukuthi ubheke i-PEF yakho, evame ukubizwa njengokugeleza okuphezulu, ekhaya amasonto amabili kuya kwamane.
  • I-nitric oxide ephume ngokweqile (i-FeNO) - ilinganisa izinga lokuvuvukala ezindleleni zakho zomoya.
  • Inselelo ye-Bronchial - iphenya ukuthi imikhuba yakho yomoya izwelana kanjani ne-irritant ephethwe ngamabomu (i-histamine noma i-methacholine). Lokhu kuhlolwa kochwepheshe kwenziwa kuphela ngaphansi kokuqondiswa kwezokwelapha esibhedlela.

Iningi labantu lidinga ukuhlolwa okukodwa noma okubili ukufinyelela ekutholeni ukuxilongwa. Ngemuva kokuqinisekiswa kwesifuba somoya ungahle ube nokuhlolwa kokungezwani komzimba okukodwa noma okuningi ukuzama ukukhomba izimbangela ezingaba khona.

Ngabe i-asthma ingahamba kubantu abadala?

Alikho ikhambi lezinhlobo eziningi ze-asthma yabantu abadala. Okuhlukile kulokhu yi-asthma ehlobene nendawo yokusebenza, engamiswa ngokukhomba nokususa izinto ezibangela i-asthma, noma uma uzisusa ekuvezweni. Kungadingeka ukuthi ushintshe umsebenzi wakho ukwenza lokhu.

Ukwelashwa kwesifuba somoya kubantu abadala

Imithi nokwelashwa kwe-asthma yabantu abadala yilena:

  • Ama-anti-inflammatories - ama-corticosteroids ahogelwayo athathwa nsuku zonke ukuvimbela izimpawu zesifuba somoya ngokunciphisa ukuzwela komoya nokuvuvukala. Amaphilisi e-steroid angathathwa ukuze kuqhume ama-acute flare-ups nesifuba somoya esibi kakhulu.
  • Ama-Bronchodilators - ama-bronchodilator asebenza kancane futhi asebenza isikhathi eside athathwa ngezikhathi ezithile ukukhulula izimpawu. Basebenza kungakapheli imizuzu embalwa futhi akufanele badingeke ngaphezu kokuthathu ngesonto.
  • Abaphikisi beLeukotriene receptor - amaphilisi wansuku zonke wokuthuthukisa ukuvimbela uma kudingeka.
  • I-Theophylline - ithathwa nsuku zonke ukuvimbela izimpawu uma zingalawulwa kahle.
  • Ukwelashwa kweMonoclonal antibody (Mab) - okubizwa nangokuthi yimithi yebhayoloji noma 'i-biologics', lemijovo ivimba ukuphendula komzimba ekulweni nezimbangela.
  • I-bronchial thermoplasty - inqubo yokuhlinza eyenziwe kwindlela yomoya uqobo ukunciphisa ubukhulu bayo.

Amathiphu okuphatha i-asthma yabantu abadala

  • Sebenzisa bese ulandela Uhlelo Lokusebenza Lomuntu Siqu (PAP), kwesinye isikhathi olubizwa nge-Asthma Management Plan
  • Thatha i-inhaler yakho yokuvimbela nsuku zonke noma ngabe uzizwa ulungile futhi uphilile
  • Hlala ugcina i-reliever yakho ihogela nawe
  • Buyekeza nodokotela wakho noma umhlengikazi wesifuba somoya okungenani kanye ngonyaka
  • Yiba nomuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane wonyaka kanye nomuthi wokugomela i-pneumococcal ukuvikela inyumoniya
  • Uma ubhema, thola usizo oludingekayo ukuze uyeke
  • Gcina isisindo esinempilo
  • Vocavoca umzimba njalo, udle okunempilo futhi ulale ngokwanele. Uma kuvela izimpawu lapho uzivocavoca - phumula, sebenzisa i-reliever inhaler yakho ukuze ululame ngaphambi kokuqhubeka. Khuluma nodokotela wakho noma umhlengikazi wesifuba somoya uma ukuzivocavoca kuyisisusa sakho.
  • Yazi okufanele ukwenze uma izimpawu ziba zimbi futhi, uma zenzeka, uthathe isinyathelo ngaphambi kwesikhathi.
  • Zama ukuprakthiza izivivinyo zokuphefumula kwesifuba somoya, njengendlela ye- Buteyko
  • Gcina amazinga okucindezelwa elawulwa - abanye abantu bathola usizo lwe-yoga, ukucabanga noma ukusikhipha massage.

Imininingwane nokwesekwa

Uzothola ulwazi oluthe xaxa mayelana nokungezwani komzimba nesifuba somoya kwiwebhusayithi yethu, futhi siyethemba ukuthi uzoyihlola. Nawe unga thintana nathi - singathanda ukuzwa kuwe!