Isifuba Somoya Sobuntwana

Isifuba somoya yisimo samaphaphu esivame kakhulu ezinganeni. I-Childhood Asthma yisimo sesikhathi eside esidala ukuthi ulwelwesi lwangaphakathi lendlela yomoya luvuvukale livuvuke futhi lukhiqize amafinyila amaningi. Kwenza nemisipha ezungeze imigwaqo yomoya iqine. Lapho lezi zinto zenzeka imigwaqo yethu yomoya iba mincane (ebizwa nge-bronchoconstriction) futhi sikuthola kunzima kakhulu ukuphefumula umoya uphume noma uphume emaphashini ethu.

I-Asthma yobuntwana ithinta cishe eyodwa kwezingane eziyi-11 e-UK - lokhu kufinyelela cishe Izingane eziyizigidi ezingama-1.1 ophila nalesi simo. Kuhlelo I-USA cishe izingane eziyizigidi eziyi-6.1 uphethwe yisifuba somoya.

Abantu banoma yibuphi ubudala bangaba nesifuba somoya. Kodwa-ke izimpawu zivame ukuvela okokuqala ngqa ebuntwaneni futhi imvamisa ngaphambi kwengane usuku lokuzalwa lwesihlanu.

Kungenzeka ukuthi izimpawu ze-asthma yengane yakho zizothuthuka njengoba zikhula. Mayelana izingane ezimbili kwezintathu bathole ukuthi izimpawu zabo ziyanyamalala lapho sebethomba.

I-asthma yobuntwana ibangela futhi ibangele

Asazi kahle ukuthi yini ebangela i-asthma kepha mhlawumbe iyinhlanganisela yezemvelo futhi izici zofuzo. Izingane zinamathuba amaningi okuthuthukisa i-asthma uma:

  • I-eczema noma i-allergies
  • Yiba nesihlobo esiseduze esine-eczema noma i-allergies
  • Bachayeke ngentuthu kagwayi (noma uma umama wabo evezwa intuthu kagwayi ngenkathi ekhulelwe)
  • Zivezwe kokunye ukungcola kwemvelo
  • Phila emphakathini owentulayo, ohola kancane - lokhu kungenzeka kubangelwe ukumanzi, izindlu ezikhuntile kanye nokungcola
  • Abaphatheki kahle ngokutheleleka ngegciwane lokuphefumula - okungenani isigamu sezingane ezidinga ukuya esibhedlela ngegciwane lokuphefumula le-syncytial virus (RSV) kamuva ziba nesifuba somoya
  • Unesisindo esiphansi lapho ezalwa.

Ezinye izimbangela zenza izimpawu zesifuba somoya zibe nzima (zivuleke), imvamisa:

  • Izifo zokuphefumula - imvamisa yigciwane
  • Ukungezwani komzimba - ngokwesibonelo ukufaka indlu uthuli, impova (ie hay fever), ukudla, amaphela, izinhlamvu zesikhunta, izilwane nezilwane ezifuywayo kungadala i-asthma ebangelwa ukungezwani komzimba
  • Intuthu kagwayi
  • Ukungcola - njengokukhipha intuthu yemoto nokunye okucasulayo emoyeni
  • Isimo sezulu esibi - siyashisa, siyabanda, sinomswakama noma siyaduma
  • Ukuzivocavoca
  • Ukucindezeleka nemizwelo enamandla njengokuzizwa uthukuthele kakhulu noma ujabule ngokweqile.

Izimbangela ziyinto yomuntu siqu futhi eyodwa noma eziningana zalezi zinto ezibangela ukuthi izimpawu zengane yakho zivele.

Izimpawu nezimpawu ze-asthma ezinganeni

Izimpawu ze-Asthma Yobuntwana zifaka:

  • Ukukhwehlela - ikakhulukazi uma ukukhwehlela kuqhubeka noma kuqhubeka ukubuya
  • Ukuqhuma - lokhu kuwumsindo wokushaya amakhwela lapho bephefumula
  • Ukuphelelwa umoya
  • Ukuqina kwesifuba.

Ingane yakho ngeke ibe nezimpawu ngaso sonke isikhathi - kuya ngokuthi i-asthma yabo ilawulwa kahle noma ingalawuleki kangakanani, nokuthi ngabe bavezwa yini kunoma yiziphi izimbangela. Izimpawu zabo zingaba zimbi kakhulu ebusuku (kwesinye isikhathi kubizwa ngokuthi i-asthma yasebusuku) noma into yokuqala ekuseni lapho bevuka, noma ngemuva kokuzivocavoca noma ukuqhuma kwamandla.

Ukubona izimpawu zesifuba somoya ezinganeni ezingaphansi kweminyaka engu-5

Ukukhwehlela nokuhayiza mhlawumbe yizimpawu ezilula ukuzibona ezinganeni ezingaphansi kweminyaka emihlanu. Uma ingane yakho noma ingane encane iphefumula kungenzeka iphefumula ngokushesha kunokujwayelekile noma isebenzisa umzimba wayo ukuphefumula (ngokwesibonelo, ukuphakamisa amahlombe ayo phezulu naphansi ngomoya ngamunye).

Izingane ezingaphansi kweminyaka emihlanu ngeke zichaze ukuthi zizizwa kanjani ngendlela efanayo nengane endala noma yomuntu omdala. Isibonelo, esikhundleni sokuthi bathi isifuba sabo sizwakala siqinile bangathi banesisu esibuhlungu noma ungaqaphela ukuthi bahlikihla isisu noma isifuba sabo.

Ungayihlola kanjani i-asthma enganeni

Uma ukhathazekile ngokuthi ingane yakho ingahle ibe nesifuba somoya, kufanele uyise kudokotela, okungenzeka ukuthi:

  • Buza ngomlando wabo wezokwelapha - noma yiziphi izimpawu nezimbangela okungenzeka uzibonile muva nje, nokuthi zenzeka nini
  • Buza ukuthi ingane yakho noma amanye amalungu omndeni ane-eczema noma i-allergies
  • Yenza ukuhlolwa ngokomzimba - ikakhulukazi bazolalela isifuba sengane yakho nganoma yikuphi ukushaywa umoya. Akunasondo akusho ukuthi ingane yakho ayinayo i-asthma, noma kunjalo.

Uma ingane yakho ingaphansi kweminyaka engu-5 ingatholakala ukuthi ine-asthma esolwayo ngesisekelo sohlolo olulodwa olulula. Ukuze uqiniseke ukuthi i-asthma, noma kunjalo, kuzofanela ulinde baze babe badala ngokwanele ukwenza izivivinyo zokuphefumula ezihambisanayo.

Izingane eziphakathi kuka-5 no-16 kufanele zicelwe ngudokotela wazo ukuthi zenze isivivinyo esisodwa noma eziningi zokuphefumula:

  • I-Spirometry - ingane yakho iceliwe ukuthi ishaye into esemlomo ngokushesha futhi isikhathi eside ngangokunokwenzeka ukukala ukuthi amaphaphu abo asebenza kanjani.
  • Ukubuyiselwa emuva kweBronchodilator (BDR) - uma lokho kuhlolwa kokuqala kwe-spirometry kuphakamisa ukuthi ingane yakho ayiphefumuli kahle, udokotela wakho noma umhlengikazi wesifuba uzobanika umthamo owodwa wemithi ye-bronchodilator. Ukuhlolwa okubili kwe-spirometry - okukodwa ngaphambi nangemva komuthi - kuzolinganisa noma yikuphi ukuthuthuka. Ukuhlolwa okuhle kwe-BDR kuqinisekisa ukuxilongwa kwesifuba somoya.
  • I-nitric oxide ephume ngokweqile (i-FeNO) - ilinganisa izinga lokuvuvukala ezindleleni zomoya zengane yakho.
  • Ukuqapha kwe-Peir expiratory flow (PEF) - ingane yakho ishaya kushubhu elincane ukukala ukuthi ikwazi ukuphefumula ngokushesha kangakanani. Uma i-PEF ishintsha kakhulu usuku nosuku lokho kungakhombisa ukuxilongwa kwesifuba somoya.

Ungakhathazeki uma ingane yakho encane ingenakho ukuhlangana ngesandla nokuphefumula ukwenza lezi zivivinyo - zingazama futhi njalo ezinyangeni eziyisithupha kuya kweziyi-12.

Ukwelashwa kwe-Asthma ebuntwaneni

Kunezinhlobo ezimbili zomuthi ezisetshenziselwa ukwelapha i-asthma ezinganeni:

  • I-inhaler yokuhlenga noma yokuhlenga (i-bronchodilator) - zisebenzise lezi zikhathi ezithile ukukhulula izimpawu zengane yakho lapho zenzeka. Zisebenza ngokushesha ngaphakathi kwemizuzu engaba ngu-3. Ama-Reliever inhalers imvamisa aluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka.
  • Isivimbeli (i-anti-inflammatory) inhaler - sisebenzise nsuku zonke ukuvimbela ingane yakho ukuthi ibe nezimpawu.

Ama-inhalers aletha umuthi njengesifutho noma impuphu ngqo lapho kudingeka khona - imigwaqo yomoya. Iningi lezingane line-asthma elawulwa kahle uma zisebenzisa ama-inhaler (s) azo ngendlela efanele. Ukuxhuma i-spacer noma i-nebuliser device kwi-inhaler kungenza kube lula ukuyisebenzisa - ikakhulukazi ezinganeni nasezinganeni ezisencane.

Ngokuya ngokuthi zineminyaka emingaki, izingane ezine-asthma okunzima ukuzilawula nazo zingadinga ukuthatha ithebhulethi yansuku zonke noma ukushintshela ku-inhaler ehlukile.

Imithi yokwengeza yokwengeza yezingane ezine-asthma enzima ihlanganisa i-theophylline (bushelelezi bemisipha ephumuzayo) namaphilisi e-steroid.

Ukwelashwa kwesifo somoya ngaphansi kwengu-5

Ukwelashwa kwengane noma ingane enesifuba somoya okusolwayo kunqunywe ngezinyathelo:

  • Uma izimpawu zimnene futhi kwesinye isikhathi udokotela wakho angathatha indlela 'yokubuka nokulinda' ukuze abone ukuthi kunephethini lezimpawu zabo. Isibonelo, ingabe avela kuphela ngemuva kokubandayo bese aphela?
  • Faka i-reliever inhaler oyisebenzisayo uma kuvela izimpawu.
  • Uma izimpawu ziqhubeka, nikeza isivivinyo se-inhaler yokuvimbela nsuku zonke bese uyayeka. Uma izimpawu zengane yakho zibuya kungakapheli amasonto amane, kungenzeka ukuthi zinesifuba somoya. Kule canse, bazocelwa ukuthi baqale ukuthatha isivimbela nsuku zonke futhi basebenzise i-reliever inhaler njengoba kudingeka.
  • Faka ithebhulethi yansuku zonke ye-leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) (noma isiraphu) yokuvikela okwengeziwe uma kudingeka
  • Uma izimpawu zibucayi noma ziqhubeka ngemuva kokuthi kuthathwe zonke izinyathelo ezingenhla, zizodluliselwa kuchwepheshe.

Ukwelashwa kwesifuba sezingane ezineminyaka engu-5 kuya kwengu-16

Uma i-asthma ihlolwe kahle ngudokotela ngemuva kokuthi ingane yakho yenze izivivinyo zokuphefumula ezifanele, ukwelashwa kuzonqunywa kulezi zinyathelo ezilandelayo:

  • I-Reliever inhaler
  • Faka i-inhaler yokuvikela nsuku zonke
  • Faka ithebhulethi yansuku zonke yokuvikela i-LTRA uma kudingeka
  • Uma izimpawu ziqhubeka, misa i-LTRA bese ushintshela ku-inhaler yokuvimbela esebenza isikhathi eside
  • Uma izimpawu ziqhubeka, shintshela kwinhlanganisela ye-inhaler (kokubili ukuvimbela nokunciphisa)
  • Cabanga ngesilingo se-theophylline njengesivimbeli sansuku zonke
  • Dlulisela kuchwepheshe uma kudingeka.

Amathiphu okuphatha nokugcina i-asthma ilawulwa

  • Sebenzisa bese ulandela uHlelo Lokusebenza Lomntwana wakho (i-PAP), kwesinye isikhathi olubizwa nge-Asthma Management Plan Yabelana ngayo nothisha, abanakekeli namalungu omndeni asondele.
  • Sungula isimiso sansuku zonke sokuphuza umuthi wokuvimbela - kuzokusiza wena nengane yakho ukuthi nikhumbule.
  • Qiniseka ukuthi ingane yakho iyakwazi ukuthola i-reliever inhaler yayo ngaso sonke isikhathi futhi iyazi ukuthi ikuphi.
  • Thatha ingane yakho ibuyekezwe nodokotela wayo noma umhlengikazi wesifuba somoya okungenani kanye ngonyaka.
  • Hlola njalo ukuthi inqubo ye-inhaler (ne-spacer) yengane yakho ilungile. Bheka umhlengikazi wakho wesifuba somoya noma udokotela ukuze akukhumbuze uma ungaqiniseki.
  • Qapha izimpawu zengane yakho, gcina idayari yezimpawu / yokunciphisa izifo.
  • Rekhoda izilinganiso zokugeleza okuphezulu njalo ekhaya, uma kunesidingo.
  • Yazi ukuthi yini ebangela izimpawu zengane yakho futhi uyigweme
  • Uma wena noma omunye ekhaya ubhema, yeka.
  • Khuthaza ingane yakho ukuba izivocavoca umzimba, idle ukudla okufanele futhi ilale ngokwanele.
  • Yazi okufanele ukwenze uma izimpawu ziba zimbi futhi, uma zenzeka, uthathe isinyathelo ngaphambi kwesikhathi.
  • Lapho sezikhulile ngokwanele, fundisa ingane yakho ngesifuba somoya ukuze iqonde ukuthi ingaziphatha kanjani izimpawu zayo.
  • Bheka udokotela noma umhlengikazi wakho uma ingane yakho idinga ukusebenzisa i-reliever yayo izikhathi ezingaphezu kwezintathu ngesonto.

Imininingwane nokwesekwa

Uzothola ulwazi oluthe xaxa mayelana nokungezwani komzimba nesifuba somoya kwiwebhusayithi yethu, futhi siyethemba ukuthi uzoyihlola. Ngezansi kukhona ezinye izindatshana zakamuva. Nawe unga thintana nathi - singathanda ukuzwa kuwe!

  • Iphepha elibhalwe ngokuhlanganyela nguMongameli weGAAPP, uTonya Winders, lanyatheliswa ngoJuni 2020 JACI futhi lichaza izidingo zomhlaba ezingafinyelelwanga ku-asthma yezingane. Funda iphepha lapha.
  • “Umqulu Womhlaba Wonke Wezingane Ezinesifuba Somoya” ungatholakala lapha.
  • “Isifuba Somoya: Ukusebenza Ngokubambisana Nomhlahlandlela Wethimba Lakho Lokunakekelwa Kwezempilo” kungatholakala lapha.