Ukuhlolwa kwe-Skin Prick (SPT)

I-SPT ukuvivinywa kokungezwani komzimba okwenziwa kakhulu. Ukuhlolwa kwesikhumba kungaba yindlela enembe kakhulu futhi engabizi kakhulu yokuqinisekisa okokungezwani komzimba. I-SPT isivivinyo esilula, esiphephile nesheshayo, esihlinzeka ngemiphumela kungakapheli imizuzu eyi-15-20.

I-SPT ivame ukwenziwa engxenyeni engaphakathi, kepha kwezinye izimo kungenziwa kwenye ingxenye yomzimba, njengasemuva (Izingane / izingane ezincane). Ama-allergen wokuhlola akhethiwe ngemuva kokuhlolwa ngudokotela wakho. Kuhlolwa kuphela i-3 noma i-4 noma i-allergen engaba ngu-25. Udokotela noma umhlengikazi ubeka ithonsi elincane le-allergen elingenzeka esikhunjeni. Bazobe-ke behlaba isikhumba sakho nge-lancet ngethonsi. Uma uzwela kulokho ketshezi, uzokwakha ukusabela okweqile okwenziwe kwasendaweni, ngesimo sokuvuvukala (bump / wheal) bomvu nokulinya endaweni yokuhlola kungakapheli imizuzu eyi-15. Imvamisa, uma kukhulu isondo, maningi amathuba okuthi ube uxabane ne-allergen. I-SPT ingenziwa kuwo wonke amaqembu eminyaka, kufaka phakathi izingane.

Kubalulekile ukwazi:

  • Umphumela omuhle wokuhlolwa kwesikhumba awuzihlolisisi ngokwawo ukungezwani komzimba.
  • Ukuhlolwa kwesikhumba okuhle akubikezeli ubunzima bokusabela okweqile.
  • Ukuhlolwa kwesikhumba okungekuhle ngokuvamile kusho ukuthi awunalo igciwane. Ukusabela okungekuhle kungenzeka ngenxa yezinye izizathu, isibonelo; uma isiguli sithatha ama-anti-histamines noma imishanguzo evimba umphumela we-histamine.

Isiguli kufanele siyeke ukuthatha ama-antihistamines kanye neminye imithi ethile ngaphambi kokuhlolwa. Ama-antihistamine amade asebenzayo (lawo angabangeli ukozela) kufanele amiswe isonto elilodwa; ama-antihistamine amafushane asebenzayo angamiswa amahora angama-1 ngaphambi kwesikhathi. Izingxube eziningi zokukhwehlela ziqukethe i-antihistamine; ngakho-ke ngicela utshele udokotela wakho noma imuphi umuthi owuphuzile.

Ukuhlolwa Kwesikhumba Kwangaphakathi

Isivivinyo siqukethe ukujova inani elincane lokukhishwa kwe-allergen esikhunjeni, ngesirinji nenaliti. Ukufundwa kwenziwa ngemuva kwemizuzu eyi-10-15 kuhlolwa isondo elibomvu nokubomvu. Odokotela bangasebenzisa lokhu kuhlolwa uma imiphumela yokuhlolwa kwesikhumba ingatholakali kodwa basasola ukuthi une-allergies. Udokotela wakho angasebenzisa lesi sivivinyo ekuhloleni ukungezwani komzimba nomuthi noma i-venom. Ukuhlolwa kwesikhumba akunembile ngo-100%. Ezinye iziguli zinemiphumela emihle ngezinto ezizibekezelelayo ngaphandle kwezimpawu. Kulokhu sithi ziyakhuthazwa nje kepha azilwisi. Ngalesi sikhathi, kunezinkomba ezimbalwa kakhulu zokuhlolwa kwesikhumba se-intradermal ukuthola ukungezwani kokudla.

Isivivinyo se-Allergy Patch noma i-Epicutaneous Test

Lokhu kuhlolwa kwenziwa ngokubeka iziqeshana ezithile ngezinto ezahlukahlukene (imithi, izithako zezimonyo, izinsimbi, amakhemikhali enjoloba, ukudla,) esikhumbeni sangemuva. Isivivinyo sinquma ukuthi i-allergen ingahle ibangele i-dermatitis yokuxhumana. Amachashazi asuswa ngemuva kwamahora angama-48, kepha ukufundwa kokugcina kwenziwa ngemuva kwamahora angama-72-96. Uma uzizwa ngalokhu, kufanele uhlakulele ukuqubuka kwasendaweni. Inani lamachashazi lincike ezintweni ezisolwayo udokotela wakho afuna ukuziphenya. Yazisa udokotela wakho ngayo yonke imithi oyitholayo. Ama-corticosteroids noma ama-immunomodulators angashintsha imiphumela yokuhlolwa. Amabhati nokujuluka kungasusa iziqeshana, ngakho-ke qaphela.

Izivivinyo zegazi

Ingqikithi yeserum IgE

Wonke umuntu une-Immunoglobulin E (IgE), i-antibody ebandakanyeka ekuphendukeni okudala kokungezwani komzimba. Lokhu kuhlolwa kukala yonke i-IgE egazini. Ukuhlolwa akusizi kakhulu, ngoba ezinye izimo eziningi zidala amazinga aphezulu e-IgE njengezinye izifo ezithathelwanayo, amagciwane noma ukutheleleka ngegciwane, izifo zesikhumba, ubungozi, isikhunta,…. Abanye abantu abane-IgE ephelele ngokuphelele ngeke bathuthukise ukungezwani komzimba; abanye abantu abanamazinga ajwayelekile bangakwazi ngisho nokuthuthukisa ukungezwani komzimba. Amazinga e-IgE awahlobene neze nokungezwani kokudla. Ingqikithi yeserum IgE akusho ukuthi isiguli asinazwani nento ethile. Kuyadingeka ukukala i-IgE ethile.

I-IgE ethile

Ekuhlaziyweni kwegazi udokotela wakho angalinganisa inani eliphelele le-serum IgE, kodwa futhi angalinganisa i-IgE ethile. I-IgE ecacisiwe yi-IgE ebhekiswe ku-allergen ngayinye (isb. Impova ye-Grass, i-house dust mite noma ukudla okufana ne-peanut noma i-penicillin). Uma unesimo sesikhumba noma uthatha umuthi ophazamisa ukuhlolwa kwesikhumba, ukuhlolwa kwegazi le-allergen kungasetshenziswa. Zingasetshenziselwa izingane ezingakwazi ukubekezelela ukuhlolwa kwesikhumba. Udokotela wakho uzothatha isampuli yegazi ayithumele elebhu. Ilebhu lenezela i-allergen kusampuli yakho yegazi bese ilinganisa inani lama-antibody akhiqizwa yigazi lakho ukuhlasela amagciwane. Abanye abantu bane-IgE ethile, kepha bayakwazi ukuyibekezelela le nto - ngokwesibonelo, bane-IgE ethile emelene namantongomane kodwa bayakwazi ukudla amakinati ngaphandle kokuphendula. Ziyakhuthazwa, kodwa hhayi ukungezwani komzimba. Abanye abantu bane-IgE ethile futhi basabela kulokho. Ayizweli, ayizweli nje kuphela. Imvamisa, amazinga e-IgE athile aphakeme kakhulu lapho eba namandla kakhulu izimpawu zokungezwani komzimba. Kunezinkampani eziningana ezenze izindlela zokulinganisa i-IgE ethile, futhi kwesinye isikhathi lokhu kuhlaziywa kungathola amagama afana neRAST, CAP, ELISA noma amanye. Akukho sivivinyo esinganquma ukuthi ukungezwani komzimba nomuntu othile kubi kangakanani.

Ukuhlolwa Kwenselele Yokudla

Lokhu kuhlolwa kuvame ukwenziwa ngemithi noma ukwaliwa ukudla. Kwesinye isikhathi, noma ngemuva kokwenza ukubhoboza isikhumba nokuhlolwa kwegazi, i-allergenist ayikwazi ukunikeza ukuxilongwa okucacile. Kulokhu, udokotela wakho uzophakamisa ukuhlolwa kokuphonswa inselelo kokudla ngomlomo (OFC), isivivinyo esinembe kakhulu sokuxilonga kokungezwani kokudla. Ngesikhathi sokuphonselwa inselelo kokudla, i-allergist ikondla ngokudla okusolwayo ngemithamo elinganisiwe, iqala ngamanani amancane kakhulu okungenzeka ukuthi aqala izimpawu. Ukulandela umthamo ngamunye, uyabhekwa isikhathi esithile kunoma yiziphi izimpawu zokuphendula. Uma kungekho zimpawu, kancane kancane uzothola imithamo ekhula ngokwengeziwe. Uma ukhombisa noma yiziphi izimpawu zokuphendula, inselelo yokudla izomiswa. Ngalesi simiso, ukusabela okuningi kumnene, njengokugungxula noma isifuba, futhi ukusabela okunzima akuvamile. Uma kunesidingo, uzonikezwa imishanguzo, imvamisa ama-antihistamine, wokuqeda izimpawu. Uma ungenazo izimpawu, ukungezwani komzimba nokudla kungakhishwa. Uma isivivinyo siqinisekisa ukuthi unakho ukungezwani komzimba nokudla, udokotela wakho uzokunikeza imininingwane mayelana namasu okugwema ukudla kanye / noma anikeze imithi efanele. Lokhu kuhlolwa kunamandla okubangela ukusabela okungathi sína. Inselelo kumele yenziwe ngaphakathi kwesikhungo sezokwelapha esinemishini nabasebenzi ukubhekana nezindlela ezisongela impilo. Ithimba lezokwelapha lizobheka isiguli ngezimpawu kuze kube ngamahora ambalwa ngemuva kwenselelo. Ngaphambi kokuhlolwa kwenselelo yokudla, iziguli kufanele zikugweme ukudla okusolwayo okungenani amasonto ama-2. Imithi ejwayelekile ye-antihistamine nayo iyahoxiswa.

Kunezinhlobo ezintathu zezinselelo zokudla ngomlomo:

Inselelo Yokudla Elawulwa Ngezindawo Ezimbili (i-DBPCFC)

Lokhu kuhlolwa “yindinganiso yegolide” yokuxilonga ukungezwani kokudla. Isiguli sithola amanani akhuphukayo okusolwa ngokungezwani kokudla noma i-placebo. Ukungaboni kabili kusho ukuthi i-allergen ne-placebo zibukeka ngokufana, wena noma udokotela wakho ngeke nazi ukuthi iyiphi eniyitholayo. Le nqubo iqinisekisa ukuthi imiphumela yokuhlolwa ihlose ngokuphelele.

Inselelo Yokudla Okuyimpumputhe

Kulesi sivivinyo, i-allergist iyazi ukuthi uthola i-allergen, kepha awuthandi.

Inselele Yokudla Okuvulekile

Kokubili wena nodokotela wakho niyazi ukuthi uthola i-allergen noma cha. Lapho inselelo yezinsana nezingane ezincane akudingekile ukuthi ukufihle ukudla. Inselelo evulekile inqubo ejwayelekile kula maqembu eminyaka yobudala.

Ukuhlolwa kwezinambuzane

Lokhu kuhlolwa kusetshenziswa ezigulini ezinokungezwani komzimba nenyosi noma ubuthi be-wasp, ukubheka ukuthi ngabe ukwelashwa kuphumelele yini. Ukulunywa yinyosi noma iminyovu kungacasula futhi kube buhlungu. Ungahle ubone iqhubu elibomvu elitshayayo noma elikhukhulayo. Uma uxabana nesihlungu ngokulunywa yizinambuzane, ungahle ube nokusabela okungathi sína okufana nezindlwana, ukuvuvukala, noma ukuphefumula kanzima. Imishanguzo ye-immunotherapy / yokungezwani komzimba isetshenziselwa ukuguqula inkambo yemvelo yezifo ezingezwani. Endabeni yokungezwani nezilwanyane zezinambuzane, imithi yokugoma isetshenziselwa ukubekezelela ubuthi bezinyosi noma ubulevu, ukuze isiguli siphendulwe kuphela endaweni, endaweni yesitinyela, njengabantu abangenakho ukungezwani komzimba. Imishanguzo yokungezwani komzimba ivame ukuphathwa phakathi kweminyaka emithathu kuya kwemihlanu. Ngemuva kwalesi sikhathi, udokotela angahle asikisele ukwenza ukuhlolwa kwezinambuzane ukuze azi ukuthi isiguli siyabekezela yini. Inyosi noma umnyovu ubanjwa engalweni yesiguli, kuze kube yilapho isiguli silunywa. Isiguli sibe sesibhekwa ukubona ukuthi ziyavela yini izimpawu. Ngokuya ngohlobo nobukhulu bezimpawu, umuntu angahlola ukusebenza kwe-immunotherapy bese ethatha isinqumo sokuqhubeka noma ukuyiyeka.

Intuthwane yomlilo

Ubunzima be- intuthwane yomlilo ukusabela kobuhlungu kuyahluka kuye ngomuntu nomuntu. Umcimbi ojwayelekile wezintuthwane zomlilo uqukethe izintuthwane eziningi zomlilo. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi lapho indunduma yomlilo iphazanyiswa ngamakhulu kuya ezinkulungwaneni zezintuthwane zomlilo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, intuthwane ngayinye ingaluma ngokuphindaphindiwe. Cishe bonke abantu abalunywe yizintuthwane zomlilo baba nesidleke esilumayo, esakhiwe endaweni ethintekayo, esivame ukuncipha kungakapheli imizuzu engama-30 kuye kwangama-60. Lokhu kulandelwa yibhamuza elincane kungakapheli amahora amane. Lokhu kuvame ukubonakala kugcwaliswa ngezinto ezifana nobomvu ngamahora ayisishiyagalombili kuye kwangama-24. Kodwa-ke, okubonwayo izicubu ezifile ngempela, futhi ibhamuza linamathuba amancane okutheleleka ngaphandle kokuthi livulwe. Lapho seziphulukisiwe, lezi zilonda zingashiya izibazi. Ukwelashwa kwezintuthwane zomlilo kuhlose ukuvimbela ukutheleleka kwesibili kwamagciwane, okungenzeka uma i-pustule iklwebekile noma iphukile. Ukwelashwa okuhlala isikhathi eside kokulwa nokungezwani komzimba nomlilo kubizwa ngokuthi yi-body body extract immunotherapy equkethe wonke umzimba wentuthwane, hhayi nje ubuthi, njengoba kunjalo nangezinye izinambuzane ezihlabayo. Luhlelo olusebenza kahle kakhulu, olungavimbela ukusabela okweqile kwesikhathi esizayo ekulinyweni kwezintuthwane zomlilo.